Matching Items (11)

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Designing of a Dynamic Liquid Z-Scan Spectrometer

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This paper outlines the design and testing of a z-scan spectrometer capable of measuring the third order refraction index of liquids. The spectrometer underwent multiple redesigns, with each explored

This paper outlines the design and testing of a z-scan spectrometer capable of measuring the third order refraction index of liquids. The spectrometer underwent multiple redesigns, with each explored in this paper with their benefits and drawbacks discussed. The first design was capable of measuring the third order refraction index for glass, and found a value of 8.43 +- 0.392 x 10^(-16) cm^2/W for the glass sample, with the literature stating glass has a refraction index between 1-100 x 10^(-16) cm^2/W. The second design was capable of measuring the third order refraction index of liquids, and found values of 1.23 $\pm$ 0.121 $\e{-16}$ and 9.43 +- 1.00 x 10^(-17) cm^2/W for water and ethanol respectively, with literature values of 2.7 x 10^(-16) and 5.0 x 10^(-17) cm^2/W respectively. The third design gave inconclusive results due to extreme variability in testing, and and the fourth design outlined has not been tested yet due to time constraints.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Spectral Analysis of Four Times Ionized Iron and Nickel in the Vacuum Ultraviolet with Applications in Astrophysics

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Observations of four times ionized iron and nickel (Fe V & Ni V) in the G191-B2B white dwarf spectrum have been used to test for variations in the fine structure

Observations of four times ionized iron and nickel (Fe V & Ni V) in the G191-B2B white dwarf spectrum have been used to test for variations in the fine structure constant, α, in the presence of strong gravitational fields. The laboratory wavelengths for these ions were thought to be the cause of inconsistent conclusions regarding the
variation of α as observed through the white dwarf spectrum. This thesis presents 129 revised Fe V wavelengths (1200 Å to 1600 Å) and 161 revised Ni V wavelengths (1200 Å to 1400 Å) with uncertainties of approximately 3 mÅ. A systematic calibration error
is identified in the previous Ni V wavelengths and is corrected in this work. The evaluation of the fine structure variation is significantly improved with the results
found in this thesis.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Advanced Characterization of Aerogel Films Deposited via Aerosol Impaction-Driven Assembly

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A new nanoparticle deposition technique, Aerosol Impaction-Driven Assembly (AIDA), was extensively characterized for material structures and properties. Aerogel films can be deposited directly onto a substrate with AIDA without the

A new nanoparticle deposition technique, Aerosol Impaction-Driven Assembly (AIDA), was extensively characterized for material structures and properties. Aerogel films can be deposited directly onto a substrate with AIDA without the long aging and drying steps in the sol-gel method. Electron microscopy, pore size analysis, thermal conductivity, and optical measurements show the nanoparticle (NP) films to be similar to typical silica aerogel. Haze of nanoparticle films modeled as scattering sites correlates strongly with pore size distribution. Supporting evidence was obtained from particle sizes and aggregates using electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. NP films showed interlayers of higher porosity and large aggregates formed by tensile film stress.

To better understand film stress and NP adhesion, chemical bonding analyses were performed for samples annealed up to 900 °C. Analysis revealed that about 50% of the NP surfaces are functionalized by hydroxyl (-OH) groups, providing for hydrogen bonding. Ellipsometric porosimetry was used to further understand the mechanical properties by providing a measure of strain upon capillary pressure from filling pores. Upon annealing to 200 °C, the films lost water resulting in closer bonding of NPs and higher Young’s modulus. Upon further annealing up to 900 °C, the films lost hydroxyl bonds while gaining siloxane bonds, reducing Young’s modulus. The application of ellipsometric porosimetry to hydrophilic coatings brings into question the validity of pore size distribution calculations for materials that hold onto water molecules and result in generally smaller calculated pore sizes.

Doped hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon was grown on crystalline silicon NPs, as a test case of an application for NP films to reduce parasitic absorption in silicon heterojunction solar cells. Parasitic absorption of blue light could be reduced because microcrystalline silicon has a mix of direct and indirect bandgap, giving lower blue absorption than amorphous silicon. Using Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy, the crystallinity of films as thin as 13 nm was determined rapidly (in 1 minute) and non-destructively. A mono-layer of nanocrystals was applied as seeds for p-doped microcrystalline silicon growth and resulted in higher crystallinity films. Applications of the method could be explored for other nanocrystalline materials.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Meteorites on Mars as planetary research tools with special considerations for Martian weathering processes

Description

The occurrence of exogenic, meteoritic materials on the surface of any world presents opportunities to explore a variety of significant problems in the planetary sciences. In the case of Mars,

The occurrence of exogenic, meteoritic materials on the surface of any world presents opportunities to explore a variety of significant problems in the planetary sciences. In the case of Mars, meteorites found on its surface may help to 1) constrain atmospheric conditions during their time of arrival; 2) provide insights into possible variabilities in meteoroid type sampling between Mars and Earth space environments; 3) aid in our understanding of soil, dust, and sedimentary rock chemistry; 4) assist with the calibration of crater-age dating techniques; and 5) provide witness samples for chemical and mechanical weathering processes. The presence of reduced metallic iron in approximately 88 percent of meteorite falls renders the majority of meteorites particularly sensitive to oxidation by H2O interaction. This makes them excellent markers for H2O occurrence. Several large meteorites have been discovered at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs). Significant morphologic characteristics interpretable as weathering features in the Meridiani suite of iron meteorites include a 1) large pit lined with delicate iron protrusions suggestive of inclusion removal by corrosive interaction; 2) differentially eroded kamacite and taenite lamellae on three of the meteorites, providing relative timing through cross-cutting relationships with deposition of 3) an iron oxide-rich dark coating; and 4) regmaglypted surfaces testifying to regions of minimal surface modification; with other regions in the same meteorites exhibiting 5) large-scale, cavernous weathering. Iron meteorites found by Mini-TES at both Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater have prompted laboratory experiments designed to explore elements of reflectivity, dust cover, and potential oxide coatings on their surfaces in the thermal infrared using analog samples. Results show that dust thickness on an iron substrate need be only one tenth as great as that on a silicate rock to obscure its infrared signal. In addition, a database of thermal emission spectra for 46 meteorites was prepared to aid in the on-going detection and interpretation of these valuable rocks on Mars using Mini-TES instruments on both MER spacecraft. Applications to the asteroidal sciences are also relevant and intended for this database.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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The ancient rocky surfaces of Mars: analysis of spacecraft data and the development of laboratory instrumentation

Description

Early spacecraft missions to Mars, including the Marnier and Viking orbiters and landers revealed a morphologically and compositionally diverse landscape that reshaped widely held views of Mars. More recent spacecraft

Early spacecraft missions to Mars, including the Marnier and Viking orbiters and landers revealed a morphologically and compositionally diverse landscape that reshaped widely held views of Mars. More recent spacecraft including Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the Mars Exploration Rovers have further refined, enhanced, and diversified our understanding of Mars. In this dissertation, I take a multiple-path approach to planetary and Mars science including data analysis and instrument development. First, I present several tools necessary to effectively use new, complex datasets by highlighting unique and innovative data processing techniques that allow for the regional to global scale comparison of multiple datasets. Second, I present three studies that characterize several processes on early Mars, where I identify a regional, compositionally distinct, in situ, stratigraphically significant layer in Ganges and Eos Chasmata that formed early in martian history. This layer represents a unique period in martian history where primitive mantle materials were emplaced over large sections of the martian surface. While I originally characterized this layer as an effusive lava flow, based on the newly identified regional or global extent of this layer, I find the only likely scenario for its emplacement is the ejecta deposit of the Borealis Basin forming impact event. I also re-examine high thermal inertia, flat-floored craters identified in Viking data and conclude they are typically more mafic than the surrounding plains and were likely infilled by primitive volcanic materials during, or shortly after the Late Heavy Bombardment. Furthermore, the only plausible source for these magmas is directly related to the impact process, where mantle decompression melting occurs as result of the removal of overlying material by the impactor. Finally, I developed a new laboratory microscopic emission and reflectance spectrometer designed to help improve the interpretation of current remote sensing or in situ data from planetary bodies. I present the design, implementation, calibration, system performance, and preliminary results of this instrument. This instrument is a strong candidate for the next generation in situ rover instruments designed to definitively assess sample mineralogy and petrology while preserving geologic context.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Towards High Spatial Resolution Vibrational Spectroscopy in a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

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Vibrational spectroscopy is a ubiquitous characterization tool in elucidating atomic structure at the bulk and nanoscale. The ability to perform high spatial resolution vibrational spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron

Vibrational spectroscopy is a ubiquitous characterization tool in elucidating atomic structure at the bulk and nanoscale. The ability to perform high spatial resolution vibrational spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has the potential to affect a variety of materials science problems. Since 2014, instrumentation development has pushed for incremental improvements in energy resolution, with the current best being 4.2 meV. Although this is poor in comparison to what is common in photon or neutron vibrational spectroscopies, the spatial resolution offered by vibrational EELS is equal to or better than the best of these other techniques.

The major objective of this research program is to investigate the spatial resolution of the monochromated energy-loss signal in the transmission-beam mode and correlate it to the excitation mechanism of the associated vibrational mode. The spatial variation of dipole vibrational signals in SiO2 is investigated as the electron probe is scanned across an atomically abrupt SiO2/Si interface. The Si-O bond stretch signal has a spatial resolution of 2 – 20 nm, depending on whether the interface, bulk, or surface contribution is chosen. For typical TEM specimen thicknesses, coupled surface modes contribute strongly to the spectrum. These coupled surface modes are phonon polaritons, whose intensity and spectral positions are strongly specimen geometry dependent. In a SiO2 thin-film patterned with a 2x2 array, dielectric theory simulations predict the simultaneous excitation of parallel and uncoupled surface polaritons and a very weak excitation of the orthogonal polariton.

It is demonstrated that atomic resolution can be achieved with impact vibrational signals from optical and acoustic phonons in a covalently bonded material like Si. Sub-nanometer resolution mapping of the Si-O symmetric bond stretch impact signal can also be performed in an ionic material like SiO2. The visibility of impact energy-loss signals from excitation of Brillouin zone boundary vibrational modes in hexagonal BN is seen to be a strong function of probe convergence, but not as strong a function of spectrometer collection angles. Some preliminary measurements to detect adsorbates on catalyst nanoparticle surfaces with minimum radiation damage in the aloof-beam mode are also presented.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Multiscale engineering response of alkali activated aluminosilicate binders

Description

Sustainable materials and methods have achieved a pivotal role in the research plethora of the new age due to global warming. Cement production is responsible in contributing to 5% of

Sustainable materials and methods have achieved a pivotal role in the research plethora of the new age due to global warming. Cement production is responsible in contributing to 5% of global CO2 emissions. Complete replacement of cement by alkaline activation of aluminosilicate waste materials such as slag and fly ash is a major advancement towards reducing the adverse impacts of cement production. Comprehensive research has been done, to understand the optimized composition and hydration products. The focus of this dissertation is to understand the multiscale behavior ranging from early age properties, fundamental material structure, fracture and crack resistance properties, durability responses and alternative activation methods to existing process.

The utilization of these materials has relied primarily on the dual benefits of reduced presence in landfills and cost. These have also proven to yield a higher service life as opposed to conventional ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete due to an enhanced microstructure. The use of such materials however has not been readily acceptable due to detrimental early age behavior. The influence of design factors is studied to understand the reaction mechanism. Silicon polymerization at the molecular level is studied to understand the aluminosilicate interactions which are responsible for prevention of any leaching of ions. A comparative study between fly ash and slag binders is carried out to evaluate the stable states of sodium, aluminum and silicon in both these binders, since the likelihood of the sodium ions leaching out is high.

Compressive and flexural strength have been reported in previous literature, but the impact of crack resistance was unevaluated from an approach of characterizing the fracture process zone. Alternative routes of activation are explored with an intent to reduce the high alkalinity by use of neutral salts such as sodium sulfate. High volume OPC replacement by both class C and F fly ash is performed to evaluate the differences in hydration phase formation responsible for its pore refinement and strength. Spectroscopic studies have also allowed to study the fundamental material structure. Durability studies are also performed on these samples to understand the probability external sulfate attacks as opposed to OPC mixes.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Integrated CMOS-based low power electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for biomedical applications

Description

This thesis dissertation presents design of portable low power Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) system which can be used for biomedical applications such as tear diagnosis, blood diagnosis, or any other

This thesis dissertation presents design of portable low power Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) system which can be used for biomedical applications such as tear diagnosis, blood diagnosis, or any other body-fluid diagnosis. Two design methodologies are explained in this dissertation (a) a discrete component-based portable low-power EIS system and (b) an integrated CMOS-based portable low-power EIS system. Both EIS systems were tested in a laboratory environment and the characterization results are compared. The advantages and disadvantages of the integrated EIS system relative to the discrete component-based EIS system are presented including experimental data. The specifications of both EIS systems are compared with commercially available non-portable EIS workstations. These designed EIS systems are handheld and very low-cost relative to the currently available commercial EIS workstations.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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High resolution spectroscopy of metal-containing molecules and construction of resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS)

Description

This thesis describes the studies for two groups of molecules in the gas-phase: (a) copper monofluoride (CuF) and copper hydroxide (CuOH); (b) thorium monoxide (ThO) and tungsten carbide (WC). Copper-containing

This thesis describes the studies for two groups of molecules in the gas-phase: (a) copper monofluoride (CuF) and copper hydroxide (CuOH); (b) thorium monoxide (ThO) and tungsten carbide (WC). Copper-containing molecules (Group a) are selected to investigate the ionic bonding in transition metal-containing molecules because they have a relatively simple electronic state distribution due to the nearly filled 3d-orbital. ThO and WC (Group b) are in support of particle physics for the determination of electron electric dipole moment (eEDM), de, the existence of which indicates new physics beyond the Standard Model. The determination of the tiny eEDM requires large electric fields applied to the electron. The 3(Delta)1 states for heavy polar molecules were proposed [E. R. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, and M. P. Deskevich, Phys. Rev. A 73, 062108 (2006)] to determine de with the following attractive features: (1) large electric dipole moments; (2) large internal electric fields, Eeff, experienced by valence electrons; (3) nearly degenerate omega-doublets; (4) extremely small magnetic dipole moments. The H3(Delta)1 state for ThO and the X3(Delta)1 state for WC are both good candidates. Spectroscopic parameters (i.e. molecular electric and magnetic dipole moments, omega-doubling parameters, etc) are required for the 3(Delta)1 states of ThO and WC. High resolution optical spectra (linewidth ~50 MHz) of CuF, CuOH, ThO and WC were recorded field-free and in the presence of a static electric field (or magnetic field) using laser ablation source/supersonic expansion and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. The spectra were modeled by a zero-field effective Hamiltonian operator and a Stark (or Zeeman) Hamiltonian operator with various molecular parameters. The determined molecular parameters are compared to theoretical predictions. The small omega-doubling parameter was well determined using the pump/probe microwave optical double resonance (PPMODR) technique with a much higher resolution (linewidth ~60 kHz) than optical spectroscopy. In addition to the above mentioned studies of the two groups of molecules, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) combined with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to identify the molecules responsible for observed LIF signals. The operation of this spectrometer has been tested by recording the mass spectrum of Ti/O2 and the REMPI spectrum for TiO using a two-color excitation scheme.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Combined photo- and thermionic electron emission from low work function diamond films

Description

In this dissertation, combined photo-induced and thermionic electron emission from low work function diamond films is studied through low energy electron spectroscopy analysis and other associated techniques. Nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-terminated diamond

In this dissertation, combined photo-induced and thermionic electron emission from low work function diamond films is studied through low energy electron spectroscopy analysis and other associated techniques. Nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-terminated diamond films prepared by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method have been the most focused material. The theme of this research is represented by four interrelated issues. (1) An in-depth study describes combined photo-induced and thermionic emission from nitrogen-doped diamond films on molybdenum substrates, which were illuminated with visible light photons, and the electron emission spectra were recorded as a function of temperature. The diamond films displayed significant emissivity with a low work function of ~ 1.5 eV. The results indicate that these diamond emitters can be applied in combined solar and thermal energy conversion. (2) The nitrogen-doped diamond was further investigated to understand the physical mechanism and material-related properties that enable the combined electron emission. Through analysis of the spectroscopy, optical absorbance and photoelectron microscopy results from sample sets prepared with different configurations, it was deduced that the photo-induced electron generation involves both the ultra-nanocrystalline diamond and the interface between the diamond film and metal substrate. (3) Based on results from the first two studies, possible photon-enhanced thermionic emission was examined from nitrogen-doped diamond films deposited on silicon substrates, which could provide the basis for a novel approach for concentrated solar energy conversion. A significant increase of emission intensity was observed at elevated temperatures, which was analyzed using computer-based modeling and a combination of different emission mechanisms. (4) In addition, the electronic structure of vanadium-oxide-terminated diamond surfaces was studied through in-situ photoemission spectroscopy. Thin layers of vanadium were deposited on oxygen-terminated diamond surfaces which led to oxide formation. After thermal annealing, a negative electron affinity was found on boron-doped diamond, while a positive electron affinity was found on nitrogen-doped diamond. A model based on the barrier at the diamond-oxide interface was employed to analyze the results. Based on results of this dissertation, applications of diamond-based energy conversion devices for combined solar- and thermal energy conversion are proposed.

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Date Created
  • 2013