Matching Items (3)
Pb-free solders are used as interconnects in various levels of micro-electronic packaging. Reliability of these interconnects is very critical for the performance of the package. One of the main factors affecting the reliability of solder joints is the presence of porosity which is introduced during processing of the joints. In this thesis, the effect of such porosity on the deformation behavior and eventual failure of the joints is studied using Finite Element (FE) modeling technique. A 3D model obtained by reconstruction of x-ray tomographic image data is used as input for FE analysis to simulate shear deformation and eventual failure of the joint using ductile damage model. The modeling was done in ABAQUS (v 6.10). The FE model predictions are validated with experimental results by comparing the deformation of the pores and the crack path as predicted by the model with the experimentally observed deformation and failure pattern. To understand the influence of size, shape, and distribution of pores on the mechanical behavior of the joint four different solder joints with varying degrees of porosity are modeled using the validated FE model. The validation technique mentioned above enables comparison of the simulated and actual deformation only. A more robust way of validating the FE model would be to compare the strain distribution in the joint as predicted by the model and as observed experimentally. In this study, to enable visualization of the experimental strain for the 3D microstructure obtained from tomography, a three dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) code has been implemented in MATLAB (MathWorks Inc). This developed 3D DIC code can be used as another tool to verify the numerical model predictions. The capability of the developed code in measuring local displacement and strain is demonstrated by considering a test case.
With increasing concerns of the intrinsic toxicity of lead (Pb) in electronics, a series of tin (Sn) based alloys involving silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) have been proposed as replacements for Pb-Sn solder and widely accepted by industry. However, they have a higher melting point and often exhibit poorer damage tolerance than Pb-Sn alloys. Recently, a new class of alloys with trace amount of rare-earth (RE) elements has been discovered and investigated. In previous work from Prof. Chawla's group, it has been shown that cerium (Ce)-based Pb-free solder are less prone to oxidation and Sn whiskering, and exhibit desirable attributes of microstructural refinement and enhanced ductility relative to lanthanum (La)-based Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu (SAC) alloy. Although the formation of RESn3 was believed to be directly responsible for the enhanced ductility in RE-containing SAC solder by allowing microscopic voids to nucleate throughout the solder volume, this cavitation-based mechanism needs to be validated experimentally and numerically. Additionally, since the previous study has exhibited the realistic feasibility of Ce-based SAC lead-free solder alloy as a replacement to conventional SAC alloys, in this study, the proposed objective focuses on the in in-depth understanding of mechanism of enhanced ductility in Ce-based SAC alloy and possible issues associated with integration of this new class of solder into electronic industry, including: (a) study of long-term thermal and mechanical stability on industrial metallization, (b) examine the role of solder volume and wetting behavior of the new solder, relative to Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu alloys, (c) conduct experiments of new solder alloys in the form of mechanical shock and electromigration. The research of this new class alloys will be conducted in industrially relevant conditions, and the results would serve as the first step toward integration of these new, next generation solders into the industry.
In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain rates but currently little can be done to produce a synchronized combination of these varying impacts. This research focuses on fabricating a flange which will be mounted on the incident bar of a SHPB and struck perpendicularly by a pneumatically driven striker thus allowing for torsion without interfering with the simultaneous compression or tension. Analytical calculations are done to determine size specifications of the flange to protect against yielding or failure. Based on these results and other design considerations, the flange and a complementary incident bar are created. Timing can then be established such that the waves impact the specimen at the same time causing simultaneous loading of a specimen. This thesis allows research at Arizona State University to individually incorporate all uniaxial deformation modes (tension, compression, and torsion) at high strain rates as well as combining either of the first two modes with torsion. Introduction of torsion will expand the testing capabilities of the SHPB at ASU and allow for more in depth analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials under impact loading. Combining torsion with tension or compression will promote analysis of a material's adherence to the Von Mises failure criterion. This greater understanding of material behavior can be implemented into models and simulations thereby improving the accuracy with which engineers can design new structures.