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Local Mechanical Behavior of Hastelloy-X at High Temperatures and Its Relationship to Failure

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The following is a report that will evaluate the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy Hastelloy X and its relationship to mechanical properties in different load conditions. Hastelloy X is of interest to the company AORA because its strength and oxidation

The following is a report that will evaluate the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy Hastelloy X and its relationship to mechanical properties in different load conditions. Hastelloy X is of interest to the company AORA because its strength and oxidation resistance at high temperatures is directly applicable to their needs in a hybrid concentrated solar module. The literature review shows that the microstructure will produce different carbides at various temperatures, which can be beneficial to the strength of the alloy. These precipitates are found along the grain boundaries and act as pins that limit dislocation flow, as well as grain boundary sliding, and improve the rupture strength of the material. Over time, harmful precipitates form which counteract the strengthening effect of the carbides and reduce rupture strength, leading to failure. A combination of indentation and microstructure mapping was used in an effort to link local mechanical behavior to microstructure variability. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were initially used as a means to characterize the microstructure prior to testing. Then, a series of room temperature Vickers hardness tests at 50 and 500 gram-force were used to evaluate the variation in the local response as a function of indentation size. The room temperature study concluded that both the hardness and standard deviation increased at lower loads, which is consistent with the grain size distribution seen in the microstructure scan. The material was then subjected to high temperature spherical indentation. Load-displacement curves were essential in evaluating the decrease in strength of the material with increasing temperature. Through linear regression of the unloading portion of the curve, the plastic deformation was determined and compared at different temperatures as a qualitative method to evaluate local strength.

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2015-05

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Design of Pneumatically Actuated Torsional Loading for High Strain Rate Testing

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In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain

In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain rates but currently little can be done to produce a synchronized combination of these varying impacts. This research focuses on fabricating a flange which will be mounted on the incident bar of a SHPB and struck perpendicularly by a pneumatically driven striker thus allowing for torsion without interfering with the simultaneous compression or tension. Analytical calculations are done to determine size specifications of the flange to protect against yielding or failure. Based on these results and other design considerations, the flange and a complementary incident bar are created. Timing can then be established such that the waves impact the specimen at the same time causing simultaneous loading of a specimen. This thesis allows research at Arizona State University to individually incorporate all uniaxial deformation modes (tension, compression, and torsion) at high strain rates as well as combining either of the first two modes with torsion. Introduction of torsion will expand the testing capabilities of the SHPB at ASU and allow for more in depth analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials under impact loading. Combining torsion with tension or compression will promote analysis of a material's adherence to the Von Mises failure criterion. This greater understanding of material behavior can be implemented into models and simulations thereby improving the accuracy with which engineers can design new structures.

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2016-05

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Synthesis and Mechanical Behavior of NiTi Films with Controlled Microstructures

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Thin films are widely used for a variety of applications such as electrical interconnects, sensors, as well as optical, mechanical, and decorative coatings. Thin films made of NiTi, commonly referred to as nitinol, have generated recent interest as they are

Thin films are widely used for a variety of applications such as electrical interconnects, sensors, as well as optical, mechanical, and decorative coatings. Thin films made of NiTi, commonly referred to as nitinol, have generated recent interest as they are highly suitable for high frequency thermal actuation in microelectromechanical devices because of their small thermal mass and large surface-to-volume ratio. The functional properties of NiTi arise from a diffusionless phase transformation between two of its primary phases: austenite and martensite. This transformation leads to either the shape memory or pseudoelastic effect, where inelastic deformation is recovered with and without the application of heat, respectively. It is well known that the mechanical properties of NiTi are highly dependent on the microstructure, but few studies have been performed to examine the mechanical behavior of thin NiTi films (thickness below 200 nm), which are expected to have grain sizes in a similar range. The primary intent of this work is the synthesis of NiTi thin films with controlled microstructures, followed by characterization of their microstructure and its relationship to the mechanical properties. Microstructural control was achieved by utilizing a novel synthesis technique in which amorphous precursor films are seeded with nanocrystals, which serve as nucleation sites during subsequent crystallization via thermal annealing. This technique enables control of grain size, dispersion, and phase composition of thin films by varying the parameters of seed deposition as well as annealing conditions. The microstructures and composition of the NiTi thin films were characterized using X-ray Diffraction, Electron Microprobe Analysis, High-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, as well as other complementary techniques. Mechanical properties of the films were investigated using uniaxial tensile testing performed using a custom microfabricated tensile testing stage. The NiTi thin films exhibit mechanical behavior that is distinct from bulk NiTi, which is also highly sensitive to small changes in microstructure and phase composition. These findings are rationalized in terms of the changes in deformation mechanisms that occur at small grain sizes and sample dimensions.

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2021