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Design of Pneumatically Actuated Torsional Loading for High Strain Rate Testing

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In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain

In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain rates but currently little can be done to produce a synchronized combination of these varying impacts. This research focuses on fabricating a flange which will be mounted on the incident bar of a SHPB and struck perpendicularly by a pneumatically driven striker thus allowing for torsion without interfering with the simultaneous compression or tension. Analytical calculations are done to determine size specifications of the flange to protect against yielding or failure. Based on these results and other design considerations, the flange and a complementary incident bar are created. Timing can then be established such that the waves impact the specimen at the same time causing simultaneous loading of a specimen. This thesis allows research at Arizona State University to individually incorporate all uniaxial deformation modes (tension, compression, and torsion) at high strain rates as well as combining either of the first two modes with torsion. Introduction of torsion will expand the testing capabilities of the SHPB at ASU and allow for more in depth analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials under impact loading. Combining torsion with tension or compression will promote analysis of a material's adherence to the Von Mises failure criterion. This greater understanding of material behavior can be implemented into models and simulations thereby improving the accuracy with which engineers can design new structures.

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2016-05

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Mechanisms for kink band evolution in polymer matrix composites: a digital image correlation and finite element study

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Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are attractive structural materials due to their high stiffness to low weight ratio. However, unidirectional PMCs have low shear strength and failure can occur along kink bands that develop on compression due to plastic microbuckling that

Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are attractive structural materials due to their high stiffness to low weight ratio. However, unidirectional PMCs have low shear strength and failure can occur along kink bands that develop on compression due to plastic microbuckling that carry strains large enough to induce nonlinear matrix deformation. Reviewing the literature, a large fraction of the existing work is for uniaxial compression, and the effects of stress gradients, such as those present during bending, have not been as well explored, and these effects are bound to make difference in terms of kink band nucleation and growth. Furthermore, reports on experimental measurements of strain fields leading to and developing inside these bands in the presence of stress gradients are also scarce and need to be addressed to gain a full understanding of their behavior when UDCs are used under bending and other spatially complex stress states.

In a light to bridge the aforementioned gaps, the primary focus of this work is to understand mechanisms for kink band evolution under an influence of stress-gradients induced during bending. Digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure strains inside and around the kink bands during 3-point bending of samples with 0°/90° stacking made of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fibers. Measurements indicate bands nucleate at the compression side and propagate into the sample carrying a mixture of large shear and normal strains (~33%), while also decreasing its bending stiffness. Failure was produced by a combination of plastic microbuckling and axial splitting. The microstructure of the kink bands was studied and used in a microstructurally explicit finite element model (FEM) to analyze stresses and strains at ply level in the samples during kink band evolution, using cohesive zone elements to represent the interfaces between plies. Cohesive element properties were deduced by a combination of delamination, fracture and three-point bending tests used to calibrate the FEMs. Modeling results show that the band morphology is sensitive to the shear and opening properties of the interfaces between the plies.

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2016

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Effects of dynamic material strength on hydrodynamic instability and damage evolution in shock loaded copper

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Characterization and modeling of deformation and failure in metallic materials under extreme conditions, such as the high loads and strain rates found under shock loading due to explosive detonation and high velocity-impacts, are extremely important for a wide variety of

Characterization and modeling of deformation and failure in metallic materials under extreme conditions, such as the high loads and strain rates found under shock loading due to explosive detonation and high velocity-impacts, are extremely important for a wide variety of military and industrial applications. When a shock wave causes stress in a material that exceeds the elastic limit, plasticity and eventually spallation occur in the material. The process of spall fracture, which in ductile materials stems from strain localization, void nucleation, growth and coalescence, can be caused by microstructural heterogeneity. The analysis of void nucleation performed from a microstructurally explicit simulation of a spall damage evolution in a multicrystalline copper indicated triple junctions as the preferred sites for incipient damage nucleation revealing 75% of them with at least two grain boundaries with misorientation angle between 20-55°. The analysis suggested the nature of the boundaries connecting at a triple junction is an indicator of their tendency to localize spall damage. The results also showed that damage propagated preferentially into one of the high angle boundaries after voids nucleate at triple junctions. Recently the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) have been used to deduce dynamic material strength at very high pressures and strain rates. The RMI is used in this work since it allows using precise diagnostics such as Transient Imaging Displacement Interferometry (TIDI) due to its slower linear growth rate. The Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) model is used to study the effects of dynamic strength on the behavior of samples with a fed-thru RMI, induced via direct laser drive on a perturbed surface, on stability of the shock front and the dynamic evolution of the amplitudes and velocities of the perturbation imprinted on the back (flat) surface by the perturbed shock front. Simulation results clearly showed that the amplitude of the hydrodynamic instability increases with a decrease in strength and vice versa and that the amplitude of the perturbed shock front produced by the fed-thru RMI is also affected by strength in the same way, which provides an alternative to amplitude measurements to study strength effects under dynamic conditions. Simulation results also indicate the presence of second harmonics in the surface perturbation after a certain time, which were also affected by the material strength.

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2016