Matching Items (4)

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Improving the Realism and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

Description

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of changes in metabolic activity in tumors and metabolic abnormalities can provide a window to understanding the complex behavior of malignant tumors. Both diagnostics and treatment

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of changes in metabolic activity in tumors and metabolic abnormalities can provide a window to understanding the complex behavior of malignant tumors. Both diagnostics and treatment options can be improved through the further comprehension of the processes that contribute to tumor malignancy and growth. By detecting and disturbing this activity through personalized treatments, it is the hope to provide better diagnostics and care to patients. Experimenting with multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) allows for a rapid, inexpensive and convenient solution to studying multiple in vitro tumors. High quality magnetic resonance images of small samples, such as spheroid, however, are difficult to achieve with current radio frequency coils. In addition, in order for the information provided by these scans to accurately represent the interactions and metabolic activity in vivo, there is a need for a perfused vascular network. A perfused vascular network has the potential to improve metabolic realism and particle transport within a tumor spheroid. By creating a more life-like cancer model and allowing the progressive imaging of metabolic functions of such small samples, a better, more efficient mode of studying metabolic activity in cancer can be created and research efforts can expand. The progress described in this paper attempts to address both of these current shortcomings of metabolic cancer research and offers potential solutions, while acknowledging the potential of future work to improve cancer research with MCTS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Design of a RF Transmitting Belt as Part of a Wireless SCS System

Description

The belt component of a unique and novel wireless spinal cord stimulator (SCS) system was conceived, designed, made, and verified. This thesis details and documents all work from inception through

The belt component of a unique and novel wireless spinal cord stimulator (SCS) system was conceived, designed, made, and verified. This thesis details and documents all work from inception through preliminary verification and includes recommendations for future work. The purpose, scope, and objectives of the design and the thesis are introduced. Background literature is presented to provide context for the wireless SCS system as well as the belt component of the system. The product development process used to design the product is outlined. Requirements and constraints are determined from customer needs. Design options are considered and the best concept is selected. The design is made, optimized, and verified to meet the requirements. Future work for this design, outside the scope of this thesis, is discussed. Recommendations and conclusions following completion of the design are included as well.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The effect of defects on functional properties of niobium for superconducting radio-frequency cavities: a first-principles study

Description

Niobium is the primary material for fabricating superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. However, presence of impurities and defects degrade the superconducting behavior of niobium twofold, first by nucleating non-superconducting phases and

Niobium is the primary material for fabricating superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. However, presence of impurities and defects degrade the superconducting behavior of niobium twofold, first by nucleating non-superconducting phases and second by increasing the residual surface resistance of cavities. In particular, niobium absorbs hydrogen during cavity fabrication and promotes precipitation of non-superconducting niobium hydride phases. Additionally, magnetic flux trapping at defects leads to a normal conducting (non-superconducting) core which increases surface resistance and negatively affects niobium performance for superconducting applications. However, undelaying mechanisms related to hydride formation and dissolution along with defect interaction with magnetic fields is still unclear. Therefore, this dissertation aims to investigate the role of defects and impurities on functional properties of niobium for SRF cavities using first-principles methods.

Here, density functional theory calculations revealed that nitrogen addition suppressed hydrogen absorption interstitially and at grain boundaries, and it also decreased the energetic stability of niobium hydride precipitates present in niobium. Further, hydrogen segregation at the screw dislocation was observed to transform the dislocation core structure and increase the barrier for screw dislocation motion. Valence charge transfer calculations displayed a strong tendency of nitrogen to accumulate charge around itself, thereby decreasing the strength of covalent bonds between niobium and hydrogen leading to a very unstable state for interstitial hydrogen and hydrides. Thus, presence of nitrogen during processing plays a critical role in controlling hydride precipitation and subsequent SRF properties.

First-principles methods were further implemented to gain a theoretical perspective about the experimental observations that lattice defects are effective at trapping magnetic flux in high-purity superconducting niobium. Full-potential linear augmented plane-wave methods were used to analyze the effects of magnetic field on the superconducting state surrounding these defects. A considerable amount of trapped flux was obtained at the dislocation core and grain boundaries which can be attributed to significantly different electronic structure of defects as compared to bulk niobium. Electron redistribution at defects enhances non-paramagnetic effects that perturb superconductivity, resulting in local conditions suitable for flux trapping. Therefore, controlling accumulation or depletion of charge at the defects could mitigate these tendencies and aid in improving superconductive behavior of niobium.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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CMOS integrated power amplifiers for RF reconfigurable and digital transmitters

Description

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form factor, 2) CMOS compatibility and 3) high power handling. The three presented methodologies are listed below:

1) A transformer-based power combiner architecture for out-phasing transmitters

2) A current steering DAC-based average power tracking circuit for on-chip power amplifiers (PA)

3) A CMOS-based driver stage for GaN-based switched-mode power amplifiers applicable to fully digital transmitters

This thesis highlights the trends in wireless handsets, the motivates the need for fully-integrated CMOS power amplifier solutions and presents the three novel techniques for reconfigurable and digital CMOS-based PAs. Chapter 3, presents the transformer-based power combiner for out-phasing transmitters. The simulation results reveal that this technique is able to shrink the power combiner area, which is one of the largest parts of the transmitter, by about 50% and as a result, enhances the output power density by 3dB.

The average power tracking technique (APT) integrated with an on-chip CMOS-based power amplifier is explained in Chapter 4. This system is able to achieve up to 32dBm saturated output power with a linear power gain of 20dB in a 45nm CMOS SOI process. The maximum efficiency improvement is about ∆η=15% compared to the same PA without APT. Measurement results show that the proposed method is able to amplify an enhanced-EDGE modulated input signal with a data rate of 70.83kb/sec and generate more than 27dBm of average output power with EVM<5%.

Although small form factor, high battery lifetime, and high volume integration motivate the need for fully digital CMOS transmitters, the output power generated by this type of transmitter is not high enough to satisfy the communication standards. As a result, compound materials such as GaN or GaAs are usually being used in handset applications to increase the output power. Chapter 5 focuses on the analysis and design of two CMOS based driver architectures (cascode and house of cards) for driving a GaN power amplifier. The presented results show that the drivers are able to generate ∆Vout=5V, which is required by the compound transistor, and operate up to 2GHz. Since the CMOS driver is expected to drive an off-chip capacitive load, the interface components, such as bond wires, and decoupling and pad capacitors, play a critical role in the output transient response. Therefore, extensive analysis and simulation results have been done on the interface circuits to investigate their effects on RF transmitter performance. The presented results show that the maximum operating frequency when the driver is connected to a 4pF capacitive load is about 2GHz, which is perfectly matched with the reported values in prior literature.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019