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Parenting practices, physical activity resources, and Hispanic children's physical activity

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This body of research sought to explore relationships between parenting practices, physical activity resources, and Hispanic children’s physical activity. Guided by the Family Ecological Model (FEM) and the Ecological Model of Physical Activity (EMPA) this study examined the influence of

This body of research sought to explore relationships between parenting practices, physical activity resources, and Hispanic children’s physical activity. Guided by the Family Ecological Model (FEM) and the Ecological Model of Physical Activity (EMPA) this study examined the influence of parents on children’s physical activity through an integrative review. A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate potential relationships between parental perception safety at school, gender, and children’s physical activity. A cross sectional study was also utilized to examine potential correlations between parenting practices, physical activity resources, and children’s physical activity. Parental role modeling of physical activity and parental support for physical activity emerged as parenting practices that have considerable potential to impact children’s physical activity. Gender differences among children’s physical activity were also a key finding of this study with boys participating in more physical activity than boys. While quality of physical activity resources did not have significant associations with parenting practices or children’s physical activity, more research is needed to determine how resources for physical activity may impact parenting practices, and children’s physical activity.

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2017

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An Examination of Socioecological Factors that Influence Preschool-aged Children's Cardiovascular Fitness and Gross Locomotor Skills within their Developmental Pathway

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Through three investigations, this dissertation examined properties of the family and early care and education center (ECEC) environments related to preschool-aged children’s cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and gross locomotor skills (GLS). Investigation one used a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize

Through three investigations, this dissertation examined properties of the family and early care and education center (ECEC) environments related to preschool-aged children’s cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and gross locomotor skills (GLS). Investigation one used a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the effectiveness of school-based interventions at improving CVF, in preschool-aged children. For investigations two and three product- and process-based measures of GLS were collected from children in ECECs (n=16), using the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER; n=144) and the CHAMPS motor skill protocol (CMSP; n=91), respectively. Investigation two and three examined family factors and ECEC factors for associations with measures of GLS, respectively.

Investigation one revealed a moderate-to-large effect size for school-based interventions (n=10) increasing CVF (g=0.75; 95%CI [0.40-1.11]). Multi-level interventions (g=.79 [0.34-1.25]) were more effective than interventions focused on the individual (g=0.67 [0.12-1.22]). In investigations two and three children (78.3% Hispanic; mean ± SD age 53.2±4.5 months) completed a mean ± SD 3.7±2.3 PACER laps and 19.0±5.5 CSMP criteria. Individual and family factors associated with PACER laps included child sex (B=-0.96, p=0.03) and age (B=0.17, p<0.01), parents’ promotion of inactivity (B=0.66, p=0.08) and screen time (B=0.65, p=0.05), and parents’ concern for child’s safety during physical activity (B=-0.36, p=0.09). Child age (B=0.47, p<0.01) and parent employment (B=2.29, p=0.07) were associated with CMSP criteria. At the ECEC level, policy environment quality (B=-0.17; p=0.01) was significantly associated with number of PACER laps completed. Outdoor play environment quality (B=0.18; p=0.03), outdoor play equipment total (B=0.32; p<0.01) and screen time environment quality (B=0.60; p=0.02) were significantly associated with CMSP criteria. Researchers, ECEC teachers and policy makers should promote positive environmental changes to preschool-aged children’s family and ECEC environments, as these environments have the potential to improve CVF and GLS more than programs focused on the child alone.

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Date Created
2019

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The Associations of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep with Cognitive Function in Adults without Cognitive Impairment

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This body of research sought to explore relationships between cognitive function and physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep, independently and in conjunction, in mid-life to older adults with no known cognitive impairment. Aging is associated with cognitive decline,

This body of research sought to explore relationships between cognitive function and physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep, independently and in conjunction, in mid-life to older adults with no known cognitive impairment. Aging is associated with cognitive decline, and lifestyle behaviors such as PA, SB, and sleep, may mitigate this decline. First, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effect of aerobic PA interventions on memory and executive function in sedentary adults. Second, a longitudinal study was conducted to examine the association between SB and odds of incident cognitive impairment, and SB and cognitive decline in older adults. Last, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the joint associations between different levels of sleep with levels of PA, and sleep with levels of sedentary time on memory and executive function. This body of research provided evidence to support the association between aerobic PA and improved cognitive function, SB and incident cognitive impairment and cognitive function declines, and the joint association of sleep and different levels of PA and ST on cognitive function by hypertension status.

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2020