Matching Items (22)

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Social Connectedness and Fast Food Consumption in College Freshmen

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Attending college provides young adults with a major shift in environment from high school where many students are used to living at home with their parents or guardians. Students experience a newfound freedom once beginning their freshman year, especially if

Attending college provides young adults with a major shift in environment from high school where many students are used to living at home with their parents or guardians. Students experience a newfound freedom once beginning their freshman year, especially if living in on-campus housing. Freshmen are known to gain weight during this transitory period, and this has been partially attributed to changes in eating behaviors, which makes this a population of concern. College freshmen have significant autonomy over their food choices if not living at home, due to not having parents or guardians present. In the transition to college, freshmen are able to adopt new habits, healthy or unhealthy, which could make a large impact on their health habits for the rest of their lives; this is why the freshman population is an area of concern. RESULTS: None of the relationships between social connectedness and FF consumption were found to be statistically significant. Social connectedness was not significantly related to cross-sectional FF intake at the two different phases, or longitudinally between the two phases, even after adjustments were made. Additionally, there were no gender differences present in FF consumption or social connectedness at either phase. CONCLUSION: The lack of significant findings suggest that social connectedness might not be a reason college freshmen consume FF. Students might eat with others due to the convenience of living closely to them rather than as a means to socialize. Also, factors such as time constraints and cost might have played a larger role in why students consumed FF. Future research could involve similar studies using shorter questionnaires more tailored to eating behaviors, with more detailed measures of FF consumption (e.g. What specific FF meals did you consume?) and for a longer duration of time, to allow students to become more situated in their environment and have a better knowledge of all their food options. This study was an important contribution to the sparsely researched topic of social connectedness with a large and diverse sample studied longitudinally. It was also the only study of its kind to be performed on the college population, and had potential for future health implications in obesity and chronic conditions such as hypertension and type II diabetes. Further research is warranted to evaluate the relationship between social connectedness and other eating behaviors.

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2016-12

Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors in relation to the Social Cognitive Theory and Time Spent Eating

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OBJECTIVE: Freshman year at college is a time in an adolescent's life marked by a large amount of change in environment, as well as a shift in peer influences. Past research has shown that there are a variety of influences

OBJECTIVE: Freshman year at college is a time in an adolescent's life marked by a large amount of change in environment, as well as a shift in peer influences. Past research has shown that there are a variety of influences both personal and socio-environmental that affect weight control behaviors in college freshmen. This study examined the relationship between unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB) and two different personal and socio-environmental factors: time spent on each meal, and the perception that friends are partaking in UWCB. The Social Cognitive Theory was used to explain the intricate and intertwined association between the personal and socio-cognitive factors. METHOD: Unhealthy weight control behavior was assessed from first-year university students (n= 1241) living in campus dorms at Arizona State University. Demographics included Male (n=438) Female (n=802) first-year students with an average age of 17.5 years from various ethnic backgrounds. This was a secondary analysis of the devilSPARC study at Arizona State University and students completed a check-in survey upon participation. The survey asked for an estimation of time spent at meals and also asked the students to determine the individual's use of unhealthy weight control behaviors (vomiting, dieting, diet pills, steroids, substances, and protein shakes) as well as the observation of friend's participating in weight control behaviors. Students received a $15 Amazon gift card and devilSPARC swag as an incentive for participating. All participation was voluntary. RESULTS: This study found that unhealthy weight control behaviors were associated with spending more time on meals; this was relevant during the breakfast period. As well, the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors was associated with friends participating in unhealthy weight control behaviors in regards to both unhealthy weight loss and weight gain behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest both personal and socio-environmental factors affect the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors in college freshmen. Interventions for education should focus on body image and healthy weight control behaviors for college freshmen, intervening both before individuals enter college, as well as during the first year at university. This research is an important contribution to the literature, as it examines unhealthy weight control behaviors in college freshmen and the potential influences they face that lead them to develop such behaviors. Future studies should delve deeper into researching the relationship between time spent eating and weight control behaviors, as that has not been extensively studied in the literature.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Associations among self-compassion, stress, and eating behavior in college freshmen

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In the past decade, research has demonstrated the relationship between higher levels of self-compassion and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes. More recently, the concept of self-compassion has been explored within the context of various health behaviors. Very few studies

In the past decade, research has demonstrated the relationship between higher levels of self-compassion and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes. More recently, the concept of self-compassion has been explored within the context of various health behaviors. Very few studies have investigated the potential relationship between self-compassion and eating behaviors. Based on literature and the established relationship between negative self-evaluation and abnormal eating behaviors/eating disorders, the current study sought to examine correlations between self-compassion, eating behaviors, and stress in first time college freshmen. The study population consisted of 1478 participants; ages 18-22 years; females = 936 (63%), males = 541 (37%). Participants self-reported measures of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and the Self Compassion Scale (SCS). PSS score, the overall score and individual subscale scores of SCS, and the three subscale scores of the TFEQ (restraint, disinhibiton, hunger) were examined with Pearson correlations. Results of this study indicate significant (p = < .05) differences between males and females in PSS and all three negative SCS subscales. There was a strong and consistent correlation between the eating behavior of disinhibition and all three negative constructs of self-compassion (self-judgment, r = .29; isolation, r = .23; over-identification, r = .28) in females. The eating behavior of restraint was similarly correlated with SCS self-judgment in females (r = .26). More research is needed to understand differences in stress, self-compassion, and eating behaviors between males and females and to better comprehend the weak associations between eating behaviors and the positive psychological constructs of self-compassion (self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness) for males and females. Additionally, future research should focus on the three subscales of disinhibition as they relate to the negative constructs of self-compassion. The preliminary results of this study suggest it would be beneficial, particularly to female college freshmen, to more fully understand the dynamics of the relationship between eating behaviors and self-compassion; this knowledge may help to better structure appropriate coping strategies for the prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

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Date Created
2013

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The associations among emotions and food choices in college freshmen: a cross-sectional study using ecological momentary assessment

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While literature has examined the associations between emotions and overeating, rarely is the relationship between emotions and food choices included. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to utilize mobile-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys to determine the associations

While literature has examined the associations between emotions and overeating, rarely is the relationship between emotions and food choices included. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to utilize mobile-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys to determine the associations among negative, positive, apathetic, and mixed emotions and a variety of food choices in college freshmen living in residence halls. A total of 2142 survey responses from 647 college freshmen were included in this analysis (70.3% female, 51.5% non-white). Mixed model logistic regression assessed the cross-sectional association between emotions and food choices adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, Pell grant status, highest parental education, and the clustering of repeated measures within person and of students within residence hall. There were no significant associations between negative emotions and food choices. Positive emotions were significantly and inversely associated with eating pizza/fast food (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.5, 0.8) and cereals (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.4, 1.0), while apathetic emotions were significantly and positively associated with consuming salty snacks/fried foods (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1, 2.5) and inversely associated with consuming sandwiches/wraps (OR=0.5; 95% CI=0.3, 0.8) and meats/proteins (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.4, 1.0). It was also found that there were several instances of surveys with mixed emotions, in which participants reported feeling two conflicting emotions at once (i.e. positive and negative). Mixed emotions were significantly associated with consuming sweets (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2, 2.1), meats/proteins (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2, 2.0), and cereals (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2, 2.9). Understanding the relationships between different types of emotions and food choices is helpful in understanding the motivation behind healthy versus unhealthy food choices. These findings can be used to develop interventions that encourage positive emotions in college freshmen to better promote healthy food choices and ultimately reduce the risk of weight gain and other health disparities. Future research should examine how college freshmen differ from other college students (i.e. upper classmen and graduate students), particularly related to their emotions and food choices, so that dietary interventions can be better suited to those who are vulnerable.

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Date Created
2016

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Background and non-cognitive factors influencing academic persistence decisions in college freshmen

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As the retention rate of college freshmen increases, Tinto's (1993) model of academic persistence conceptualizes several dimensions of students' voluntary dropout. This study examined both personal and parental factors that may impact the academic persistence decisions of freshmen college students:

As the retention rate of college freshmen increases, Tinto's (1993) model of academic persistence conceptualizes several dimensions of students' voluntary dropout. This study examined both personal and parental factors that may impact the academic persistence decisions of freshmen college students: 1) parental educational attainment; 2) parental valuing of education; 3) high school grade point average (GPA); 4) residential status (on- versus off-campus); 5) educational self-efficacy; 6) self-esteem; 7) personal valuing of education; 8) perceived academic preparation; and 9) academic expectations. The study sample consisted of 378 freshmen college students at a large southwestern university who were recruited from 23 sections of a 100-level class intended to promote academic success. The participants in this cross-sectional study were restricted to freshman level students and 18 and 19 years old in accordance with Erikson's (1968) Identity stage of psychosocial development. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that academic persistence decisions were predicted by residential status and self-beliefs, which consisted of: educational self-efficacy, self-esteem, personal valuing of education, perceived academic preparation, and academic expectations. Parental valuing of education was a significant predictor of academic persistence decisions until self-beliefs were added to construct the full model. Although self-beliefs were collectively the most powerful predictors of persistence decisions, accounting for 22.8% of the variance, examination of the beta weights revealed that self-esteem, educational self-efficacy, and personal valuing of education were the most powerful predictors, while academic expectations approached significance. Residential status was also a significant predictor and accounted for a small but significant variance (1.6%) in academic persistence decisions. A significant multivariate difference was found between students living on campus and those living off campus. Follow-up ANOVAs revealed differences in mother's education and in parental valuing of education. These findings suggest that researchers, counselors, and college policy-makers consider on-campus living variables as well as students' self-beliefs when considering academic persistence decisions in college freshmen.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Effectiveness of peer mentoring and college success vourses on developing the self-efficacy of first-year community college students

Description

President Obama's (italic)Completion Agenda (/italic) is a plan that emphasizes improved student retention and persistence. The agenda also emphasizes the important role community colleges play in moving the nation toward economic prosperity. Current statistics indicate that nearly 48% of first-time

President Obama's (italic)Completion Agenda (/italic) is a plan that emphasizes improved student retention and persistence. The agenda also emphasizes the important role community colleges play in moving the nation toward economic prosperity. Current statistics indicate that nearly 48% of first-time college students are lost to attrition before the end of a student's first year of college. Student success is largely determined by student experiences during the first year; in order to address the (italic) Completion Agenda (/italic), colleges will need to support initiatives designed to help first-year students succeed. This study investigated the effectiveness of peer mentoring and college success courses on developing the self-efficacy of first-year community college students by evaluating the effectiveness of two course formats of a college success course; one format uses support of a peer mentor(s) and the other format does not use support of a peer mentor(s). The self-report College Student Self-Efficacy Inventory (CSEI) served as a data source instrument designed to measure the college experience in general and, in particular, the degree of confidence students have in their abilities to successfully perform a variety of college-related tasks. The CSEI consisted or 20 questions designed to measure three principle factors: academic self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, and social integration self-efficacy. Student demographic factors, including gender, age range, ethnicity, educational background, and data pertaining to the participants' educational goals and enrollment history, were also examined. Analysis methods included descriptive statistics, a t-test, and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) measuring differences for each factor based on whether the student was supported by a peer mentor or not. Data analysis revealed no immediate measurable differences between the two formats; however, findings could suggest that the seeds of college success were nurtured and the experience of being enrolled in either course format of a student success course has yet to be realized. It was assumed that understanding the relationship between the two course formats and development of students' self-efficacy would provide useful insight into the effectiveness, merit, or value of peer mentoring and college success courses.

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2011

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From gatekeeping to greeting: fostering persistence in first-year online writing courses

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Increasing numbers of courses are offered online and increasing numbers of students are pursuing post-secondary studies. At broad-access institutions, such as land grant universities and community colleges, this presents a particular concern around student persistence--that is, the number of students

Increasing numbers of courses are offered online and increasing numbers of students are pursuing post-secondary studies. At broad-access institutions, such as land grant universities and community colleges, this presents a particular concern around student persistence--that is, the number of students who complete diploma, certificate, or degree requirements from an institution. Such increased access and increased enrollment also present unique challenges to first-year writing instructors, who are often the first professionals with whom first-year students are in contact. Here I explore the many reasons why student persistence should interest first-year writing instructors, in particular, those who are teaching online. Student persistence has important civic, economic, ethical, institutional, and disciplinary implications that first-year instructors cannot ignore. I propose a persistence-based pedagogy that involves six essential elements: designing learner-centered online writing courses, demonstrating mattering by valuing student writing, fostering self-efficacy by making assignments relevant, fostering student connections through collaboration and community, engaging virtual learners by fostering a sense of place and presence, and recognizing the challenges and minimizing the risks of teaching online. Such an undertaking is necessarily transdisciplinary and draws on scholarship in rhetoric and composition, instructional design, educational psychology, applied linguistics, and higher education administration. It connects pedagogical principles advanced nearly fifty years ago with digital pedagogies that are in their infancy and attempts to balance the social epistemic nature of writing instruction with the real-world demands of diverse student populations, increasing course sizes, and ever-changing technologies. Perhaps most importantly, this dissertation focuses on strategies that online writing instructors can adopt regardless of their theoretical leanings, academic training, or institutional requirements. While persistence-based instruction does not change the purpose or outcomes of first-year composition and does not replace proper placement measures or address early-term drop rates, it does provide a framework for facilitating online courses that is rooted in rhetorical theory and composition pedagogy and promotes informed teaching and lifelong learning.

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Date Created
2012

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Investigating agency in multilingual writers' placement decisions: a case study of the writing programs at Arizona State University

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This yearlong project examines how multilingual undergraduate writers--including international visa students and U.S. permanent residents or citizens who are non-native English speakers--exercise agency in their first-year composition placement decisions. Agency is defined as the capacity to act or not to

This yearlong project examines how multilingual undergraduate writers--including international visa students and U.S. permanent residents or citizens who are non-native English speakers--exercise agency in their first-year composition placement decisions. Agency is defined as the capacity to act or not to act contingent upon various conditions. The goal of the project is to demonstrate how student agency can inform the overall programmatic placement decisions, which can lead to more effective placement practices for multilingual writers. To explore the role of agency in students' placement decisions, I conducted a series of four in-depth interviews with eleven multilingual writers between Fall 2010 and Spring 2011 in the Writing Programs at Arizona State University. To triangulate these placement decisions, I interviewed some of the multilingual student participants' academic advisors and writing teachers as well as writing program administrators. Findings showed that when conditions for agency were appropriate, the multilingual student participants were able to negotiate placement, choose to accept or deny their original placement, self-assess their proficiency level as deciding to choose a writing course, plan on their placement, question about placement, and finally make decisions about a writing course they wanted to take. In the context of this study, conditions for agency include the freedom to choose writing courses and information about placement that is distributed by the following sources: advisors' recommendations, other students' past experience in taking first-year composition, the new student orientation, and other sources that provide placement related information such as an online freshman orientation and a major map. Other findings suggested that the academic advisor participants did not provide the multilingual students with complete placement information; and this affected the way the multilingual students chose which section of first-year composition to enroll in. Meanwhile, there was no formal communication about placement options and placement procedures between the Writing Programs and writing teachers. Building on these findings, I argue for improving conditions for agency by providing placement options, making placement information more readily available, and communicating placement information and options with academic advisors, writing teachers, and multilingual students.

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Date Created
2012

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Increasing first-semester student engagement: a residential community retention study

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The purpose of this study was to increase first year residential student engagement and participation in residence hall programs during the 2011 fall semester at the Downtown Phoenix Campus of Arizona State University. Six upperclassmen (Taylor Place Leaders) residing in

The purpose of this study was to increase first year residential student engagement and participation in residence hall programs during the 2011 fall semester at the Downtown Phoenix Campus of Arizona State University. Six upperclassmen (Taylor Place Leaders) residing in a residence hall (Taylor Place) were matched by academic major with 17 first year students residing in Taylor Place. During the first eleven weeks of the fall semester 2011, first year students met regularly with their Taylor Place Leader to discuss residence hall program participation, living in Taylor Place, attending Arizona State University, and adjusting to their academic responsibilities. All 23 program participants completed a pre-survey inquiring about their satisfaction with their decision to attend Arizona State University, residence hall involvement, and knowledge of university services. The researcher met with Taylor Place Leaders throughout the study to learn about their experiences with mentoring the first year students. At the conclusion of the study, participants met with the researcher to complete a post-survey inquiring about the same information as the pre-survey and participated in individual interviews discussing their experience in the study. Two major findings were identified. First, participants reported that the Taylor Place Experience peer mentoring program assisted first year students in adjusting to college through identifying student support resources. Second, participants reported that living on campus during the freshman year, with mentoring support, could promote academic success, compared with living at home due to the close living proximity of their peers. Taylor Place also saw an increase in residence hall program participation during the 2011 fall semester in comparison to the 2010 fall semester. However, six of the seventeen freshman study participants decided to move out of Taylor Place and live at home by the end of the 2011 fall semester, for various reasons, such as family and employment obligations as well as being homesick.

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Date Created
2012

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In search of an identity: a study on FYC students' preference of course labels and identities

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This dissertation is an exploration of various identity labels available for first-year composition (FYC) students that tend to classify them into categories which may or may not relate to the students' perception of themselves. If there remains a gap between

This dissertation is an exploration of various identity labels available for first-year composition (FYC) students that tend to classify them into categories which may or may not relate to the students' perception of themselves. If there remains a gap between self-identification and institutional labeling then students may find themselves negotiating unfamiliar spaces detrimental to their personal goals, expectations, and understanding of their writing abilities. This may trigger a rippling effect that may jeopardize the outcomes expected from a successful FYC program stipulated in the WPA Outcomes Statement. For this study I approached 5 sections of mainstream FYC and 7 sections of ESL/ international FYC with in-class questionnaire based surveys. The 19 questions on the survey were cued to address students' concern for identity and how course labels may or may not attend to them. With feedback from 200 participants this study endeavors to realize their preference for identity markers and definitions for mainstream and ESL sections of FYC. The survey also checks if their choices correlate and in some ways challenge ongoing research in the field. The survey reports a marked preference for NES and English as a second language speaker as prominent choices among mainstream and ESL/ international students, respectively, but this is at best the big picture. The "truth" lies in the finer details - when mainstream students select NNESs and / or resident NNESs the students demonstrate a heightened awareness of individual identity. When this same category of resident NNESs identify themselves in ESL/ international sections of FYC, the range of student identities can be realized as not only varied but also overlapping between sections. Furthermore, the opinions of these students concur as well as challenge research in the field, making clear that language learning is a constant process of meaning making, innovation, and even stepping beyond the dominant mores and cultures.

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Date Created
2012