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Resource allocation in communication and social networks

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As networks are playing an increasingly prominent role in different aspects of our lives, there is a growing awareness that improving their performance is of significant importance. In order to enhance performance of networks, it is essential that scarce networking

As networks are playing an increasingly prominent role in different aspects of our lives, there is a growing awareness that improving their performance is of significant importance. In order to enhance performance of networks, it is essential that scarce networking resources be allocated smartly to match the continuously changing network environment. This dissertation focuses on two different kinds of networks - communication and social, and studies resource allocation problems in these networks. The study on communication networks is further divided into different networking technologies - wired and wireless, optical and mobile, airborne and terrestrial. Since nodes in an airborne network (AN) are heterogeneous and mobile, the design of a reliable and robust AN is highly complex. The dissertation studies connectivity and fault-tolerance issues in ANs and proposes algorithms to compute the critical transmission range in fault free, faulty and delay tolerant scenarios. Just as in the case of ANs, power optimization and fault tolerance are important issues in wireless sensor networks (WSN). In a WSN, a tree structure is often used to deliver sensor data to a sink node. In a tree, failure of a node may disconnect the tree. The dissertation investigates the problem of enhancing the fault tolerance capability of data gathering trees in WSN. The advent of OFDM technology provides an opportunity for efficient resource utilization in optical networks and also introduces a set of novel problems, such as routing and spectrum allocation (RSA) problem. This dissertation proves that RSA problem is NP-complete even when the network topology is a chain, and proposes approximation algorithms. In the domain of social networks, the focus of this dissertation is study of influence propagation in presence of active adversaries. In a social network multiple vendors may attempt to influence the nodes in a competitive fashion. This dissertation investigates the scenario where the first vendor has already chosen a set of nodes and the second vendor, with the knowledge of the choice of the first, attempts to identify a smallest set of nodes so that after the influence propagation, the second vendor's market share is larger than the first.

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Date Created
2014

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Confidentiality protection of user data and adaptive resource allocation for managing multiple workflow performance in service-based systems

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In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive

In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive data is sent in unencrypted forms to remote machines owned and operated by third-party service providers, there are risks of unauthorized use of the users' sensitive data by service providers. Although there are many techniques for protecting users' data from outside attackers, currently there is no effective way to protect users' sensitive data from service providers. In this dissertation, an approach is presented to protecting the confidentiality of users' data from service providers, and ensuring that service providers cannot collect users' confidential data while the data is processed or stored in cloud computing systems. The approach has four major features: (1) separation of software service providers and infrastructure service providers, (2) hiding the information of the owners of data, (3) data obfuscation, and (4) software module decomposition and distributed execution. Since the approach to protecting users' data confidentiality includes software module decomposition and distributed execution, it is very important to effectively allocate the resource of servers in SBS to each of the software module to manage the overall performance of workflows in SBS. An approach is presented to resource allocation for SBS to adaptively allocating the system resources of servers to their software modules in runtime in order to satisfy the performance requirements of multiple workflows in SBS. Experimental results show that the dynamic resource allocation approach can substantially increase the throughput of a SBS and the optimal resource allocation can be found in polynomial time

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Date Created
2012

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Design, analysis and resource allocations in networks in presence of region-based faults

Description

Communication networks, both wired and wireless, are expected to have a certain level of fault-tolerance capability.These networks are also expected to ensure a graceful degradation in performance when some of the network components fail. Traditional studies on fault tolerance in

Communication networks, both wired and wireless, are expected to have a certain level of fault-tolerance capability.These networks are also expected to ensure a graceful degradation in performance when some of the network components fail. Traditional studies on fault tolerance in communication networks, for the most part, make no assumptions regarding the location of node/link faults, i.e., the faulty nodes and links may be close to each other or far from each other. However, in many real life scenarios, there exists a strong spatial correlation among the faulty nodes and links. Such failures are often encountered in disaster situations, e.g., natural calamities or enemy attacks. In presence of such region-based faults, many of traditional network analysis and fault-tolerant metrics, that are valid under non-spatially correlated faults, are no longer applicable. To this effect, the main thrust of this research is design and analysis of robust networks in presence of such region-based faults. One important finding of this research is that if some prior knowledge is available on the maximum size of the region that might be affected due to a region-based fault, this piece of knowledge can be effectively utilized for resource efficient design of networks. It has been shown in this dissertation that in some scenarios, effective utilization of this knowledge may result in substantial saving is transmission power in wireless networks. In this dissertation, the impact of region-based faults on the connectivity of wireless networks has been studied and a new metric, region-based connectivity, is proposed to measure the fault-tolerance capability of a network. In addition, novel metrics, such as the region-based component decomposition number(RBCDN) and region-based largest component size(RBLCS) have been proposed to capture the network state, when a region-based fault disconnects the network. Finally, this dissertation presents efficient resource allocation techniques that ensure tolerance against region-based faults, in distributed file storage networks and data center networks.

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2013

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Economical apects of resource allocation under discounts

Description

Resource allocation is one of the most challenging issues policy decision makers must address. The objective of this thesis is to explore the resource allocation from an economical perspective, i.e., how to purchase resources in order to satisfy customers' requests.

Resource allocation is one of the most challenging issues policy decision makers must address. The objective of this thesis is to explore the resource allocation from an economical perspective, i.e., how to purchase resources in order to satisfy customers' requests. In this thesis, we attend to answer the question: when and how to buy resources to fulfill customers' demands with minimum costs?

The first topic studied in this thesis is resource allocation in cloud networks. Cloud computing heralded an era where resources (such as computation and storage) can be scaled up and down elastically and on demand. This flexibility is attractive for its cost effectiveness: the cloud resource price depends on the actual utilization over time. This thesis studies two critical problems in cloud networks, focusing on the economical aspects of the resource allocation in the cloud/virtual networks, and proposes six algorithms to address the resource allocation problems for different discount models. The first problem attends a scenario where the virtual network provider offers different contracts to the service provider. Four algorithms for resource contract migration are proposed under two pricing models: Pay-as-You-Come and Pay-as-You-Go. The second problem explores a scenario where a cloud provider offers k contracts each with a duration and a rate respectively and a customer buys these contracts in order to satisfy its resource demand. This work shows that this problem can be seen as a 2-dimensional generalization of the classic online parking permit problem, and present a k-competitive online algorithm and an optimal online algorithm.

The second topic studied in this thesis is to explore how resource allocation and purchasing strategies work in our daily life. For example, is it worth buying a Yoga pass which costs USD 100 for ten entries, although it will expire at the end of this year? Decisions like these are part of our daily life, yet, not much is known today about good online strategies to buy discount vouchers with expiration dates. This work hence introduces a Discount Voucher Purchase Problem (DVPP). It aims to optimize the strategies for buying discount vouchers, i.e., coupons, vouchers, groupons which are valid only during a certain time period. The DVPP comes in three flavors: (1) Once Expire Lose Everything (OELE): Vouchers lose their entire value after expiration. (2) Once Expire Lose Discount (OELD): Vouchers lose their discount value after expiration. (3) Limited Purchasing Window (LPW): Vouchers have the property of OELE and can only be bought during a certain time window.

This work explores online algorithms with a provable competitive ratio against a clairvoyant offline algorithm, even in the worst case. In particular, this work makes the following contributions: we present a 4-competitive algorithm for OELE, an 8-competitive algorithm for OELD, and a lower bound for LPW. We also present an optimal offline algorithm for OELE and LPW, and show it is a 2-approximation solution for OELD.

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Date Created
2015

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Optimal resource allocation in social and critical infrastructure networks

Description

We live in a networked world with a multitude of networks, such as communication networks, electric power grid, transportation networks and water distribution networks, all around us. In addition to such physical (infrastructure) networks, recent years have seen tremendous proliferation

We live in a networked world with a multitude of networks, such as communication networks, electric power grid, transportation networks and water distribution networks, all around us. In addition to such physical (infrastructure) networks, recent years have seen tremendous proliferation of social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, Google+ and others. These powerful social networks are not only used for harnessing revenue from the infrastructure networks, but are also increasingly being used as “non-conventional sensors” for monitoring the infrastructure networks. Accordingly, nowadays, analyses of social and infrastructure networks go hand-in-hand. This dissertation studies resource allocation problems encountered in this set of diverse, heterogeneous, and interdependent networks. Three problems studied in this dissertation are encountered in the physical network domain while the three other problems studied are encountered in the social network domain.

The first problem from the infrastructure network domain relates to distributed files storage scheme with a goal of enhancing robustness of data storage by making it tolerant against large scale geographically-correlated failures. The second problem relates to placement of relay nodes in a deployment area with multiple sensor nodes with a goal of augmenting connectivity of the resulting network, while staying within the budget specifying the maximum number of relay nodes that can be deployed. The third problem studied in this dissertation relates to complex interdependencies that exist between infrastructure networks, such as power grid and communication network. The progressive recovery problem in an interdependent network is studied whose goal is to maximize system utility over the time when recovery process of failed entities takes place in a sequential manner.

The three problems studied from the social network domain relate to influence propagation in adversarial environment and political sentiment assessment in various states in a country with a goal of creation of a “political heat map” of the country. In the first problem of the influence propagation domain, the goal of the second player is to restrict the influence of the first player, while in the second problem the goal of the second player is to have a larger market share with least amount of initial investment.

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Date Created
2016