Matching Items (5)

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Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Research, Medicine, and Patients

Description

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that is becoming increasingly common. Autism does not yet have a known etiology, nor a definitive diagnostic test, thus making diagnosis

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that is becoming increasingly common. Autism does not yet have a known etiology, nor a definitive diagnostic test, thus making diagnosis a difficult and rarely uniform task. Currently, ASD is behaviorally diagnosed based on criteria defined by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Recently, a change was made in the criteria from more lenient criteria in DSM-IV-TR, to more narrow criteria laid out by the DSM-V, which supersedes the DSM-IV-TR. This drastic change raised many questions and debates about which set of criteria are better. The more lenient criteria offers a more inclusive diagnosis giving greater access to therapies; while the narrow diagnostic criteria excludes some individuals, creating a more uniform diagnosis that's easier to use in research. This thesis analyzes the change in diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-V and the effects of these changes on the practices of diagnosis. In addition, it explores the implications of this change for the families of children with autism and for those involved in autism research, examining their respective opinions and interests pertaining to narrow verses broad diagnostic criteria. Building on this analysis, the thesis offers recommendations about diagnostic criteria should be set. It argues that the wellbeing of patients takes priority over the interests of researchers, and thus diagnosis should be done in a way that offers the best prognosis for all children who suffer from autistic symptoms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

Impact of an Educational Video Intervention on the Emotional Well-Being of Patients and Caregivers Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Description

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a unique but intense procedure used to save the lives of patients with hematopoietic malignancies. However, patients and caregivers undergoing HSCT can experience prolonged

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a unique but intense procedure used to save the lives of patients with hematopoietic malignancies. However, patients and caregivers undergoing HSCT can experience prolonged psychological distress due to an intense and distinctive transplant process. Types of psychological distress include anxiety, depression, social isolation, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although this a significant healthcare problem, limited research has been conducted within the HSCT patient and caregiver population to investigate ways to improve their mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an educational video intervention about post-transplant recovery in decreasing emotional distress and promoting emotional well-being in HSCT patients and caregivers. This pilot study utilized a quantitative single-group pretest-posttest design to examine the effect of educational videos on participant's emotional well-being. Four educational videos were developed using information gathered from several reliable bone marrow transplant and cancer websites. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit HSCT patient and caregiver participants. Eleven Caucasian, English-speaking individuals (6 patients, 5 caregivers; 54.5% female; M age= 43.7 years) across the United States were enrolled in the 60-90 minute online intervention. Participant responses were measured using pretest and posttest questionnaires. Results from the study found that the educational videos were effective in decreasing levels of depression and anxiety. Implications for nursing practice include the need to educate HSCT patients and caregivers about transplant recovery to decrease emotional distress. This study demonstrates the impact post-transplant education has on decreasing depression and anxiety in HSCT patients and caregivers.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction in the Dental Clinics of the Underserved Communities: A Systematic Literature Review

Description

The purpose of this study is to explore the possible factors that influence how patients rate their dentists in the underserved communities and how commonly each factors are mentioned in

The purpose of this study is to explore the possible factors that influence how patients rate their dentists in the underserved communities and how commonly each factors are mentioned in the articles found from the systematic review. PubMed was used to search the articles with the keywords categorized into 5 different groups, they were: dental/oral, underserved, patient satisfaction, services provided and America. The search resulted in 123 articles and after critical appraisal and review, 19 full text articles were determined to be fully relevant to this project. A table of summarized results from the articles was created and factors of satisfaction from the articles were translated into a category which then was categorize into broader category based on relatedness. Sub-categories that were mentioned at least five times in the articles were cost, insurance acceptance, communication, interpersonal skills, number of treatments, fear/worry/anxiety and pain. According to the findings, quality in terms of interaction and interpersonal relationship between patients and the dentists was most mentioned compared to other factors when it comes to patient satisfaction. Other factors mentioned were external factors, pain, continuity, access, cost, technical qualities, efficiency, convenience, availability and environment. The purpose of this study has been met. The results in this project suggest that dentists in underserved communities could focus on changing the way they deliver their service if they want to improve patient retention and satisfaction.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Laboratory-derived, Coded Communicative Behaviors among Individuals with Cancer and their Caregiving Partners

Description

Effective communication plays a major role in the psychological adjustment and quality of the relationship of couples coping with cancer, yet only a few communicative behaviors have been examined in

Effective communication plays a major role in the psychological adjustment and quality of the relationship of couples coping with cancer, yet only a few communicative behaviors have been examined in the context of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. This study sought to expand the extant literature by describing a wider range of communicative behaviors (beyond the frequently researched withdraw, disclosure/holding back, and avoidance behaviors) through an observable measure, as previous research has relied heavily on self-report. Couples (134 cancer patients and their caregiving partners) were video-taped discussing a cancer-related concern in the laboratory. Discussions were coded separately for patients and caregivers using the Asymmetrical Behavioral Coding System which captures 22 communicative behaviors. These behaviors contribute to four higher-level scales: positive approach, negative approach, positive avoidance, and negative avoidance. Area under the curve was calculated to describe each factor. The most frequently observed behavior was positive approach, followed by negative avoidance, negative approach, and positive avoidance.

Paired samples t-test analyses examining the factors by moderating variables revealed that women engaged in more positive approach behaviors than did men; men engaged in more avoidant behaviors (both positive and negative) than did women; and caregivers engaged in more avoidant behaviors (both positive and negative) than did patients.

Findings are consistent with prior research in the field and suggest consideration of tailoring possible future interventions. Further investigation is needed to assess possible interactional effects to ultimately help couples better communicate about the challenges associated with cancer treatment and recovery.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Borderline personality disorder features, perceived social support, sleep disturbance, and rejection sensitivity

Description

Those who have borderline personality disorder (BPD), and those who have subclinical levels of BPD features, experience distress and impairment in important life domains, especially in their interpersonal interactions. It

Those who have borderline personality disorder (BPD), and those who have subclinical levels of BPD features, experience distress and impairment in important life domains, especially in their interpersonal interactions. It is critical to understand the factors that alleviate BPD symptoms in order to help affected individuals lead healthier lives. Rejection sensitivity and sleep disturbance are two factors that may maintain or exacerbate BPD symptoms, yet new research indicates socially supportive relationships are related to symptom remission. While extensive research exists on the interpersonal impairments associated with borderline personality pathology, little research exists on how individuals with BPD or BPD features perceive and experience their social support. The present study examined the relationships between BPD features, perceived social support, sleep quality, and rejection sensitivity in a racially diverse, large sample of primarily college-aged individuals (N = 396). Results indicated that BPD features had a significant positive relationship with self-reported rejection sensitivity and a significant negative relationship with self-reported perceived social support. Additionally, BPD features had a significant positive relationship with sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance did not moderate the relationship between BPD features and rejection sensitivity as expected; however, the regression of rejection sensitivity on BPD features and sleep disturbance was significant. Finally, sleep disturbance moderated the relationship between BPD features and rejection sensitivity. Results extend and replicate recent research findings on the possible mechanisms that may maintain and alleviate BPD symptoms. Furthermore, the moderating effect of sleep disturbance on perceived social support for those with higher levels of BPD features is unique to this study.

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Date Created
  • 2016