Matching Items (20)

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In-vitro validation of a novel miniaturized hydrogel wafer check valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus

Description

Hydrocephalus is a chronic medical condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. It is estimated that 1-2 of every 1000 babies in the United States is born with congenital hydrocephalus, with many individuals acquiring hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is a chronic medical condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. It is estimated that 1-2 of every 1000 babies in the United States is born with congenital hydrocephalus, with many individuals acquiring hydrocephalus later in life through brain injury. Despite these alarming statistics, current shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus display operational failure rates as high as 40-50% within two years following implantation. Failure of current shunts is attributed to complexity of design, external implantation, and the requirement of multiple catheters. The presented hydrogel wafer check valve avoids all the debilitating features of current shunts, relying only on the swelling of hydrogel for operation, and is designed to directly replace failed arachnoid granulations- the brain’s natural cerebrospinal fluid drainage valves. The valve was validated via bench-top (1) hydrodynamic pressure-flow response characterizations, (2) transient response analysis, and (3) overtime performance response in brain-analogous conditions. In-vitro measurements display operation in range of natural CSF draining (cracking pressure, PT ~ 1–110 mmH2O and outflow hydraulic resistance, Rh ~ 24 – 152 mmH2O/mL/min), negligible reverse flow leakages (flow, QO > -10 µL/min), and demonstrate the valve’s operational reproducibility of this new valve as an implantable treatment.

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2016-05

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Molecular electronic transducer-based seismometer and accelerometer fabricated with micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques

Description

This thesis presents approaches to develop micro seismometers and accelerometers based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) technology using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) techniques. MET is a technology applied in seismic instrumentation that proves highly beneficial to planetary seismology. It consists of

This thesis presents approaches to develop micro seismometers and accelerometers based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) technology using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) techniques. MET is a technology applied in seismic instrumentation that proves highly beneficial to planetary seismology. It consists of an electrochemical cell that senses the movement of liquid electrolyte between electrodes by converting it to the output current. MET seismometers have advantages of high sensitivity, low noise floor, small size, absence of fragile mechanical moving parts and independence on the direction of sensitivity axis. By using MEMS techniques, a micro MET seismometer is developed with inter-electrode spacing close to 1μm, which improves the sensitivity of fabricated device to above 3000 V/(m/s^2) under operating bias of 600 mV and input acceleration of 400 μG (G=9.81m/s^2) at 0.32 Hz. The lowered hydrodynamic resistance by increasing the number of channels improves the self-noise to -127 dB equivalent to 44 nG/√Hz at 1 Hz. An alternative approach to build the sensing element of MEMS MET seismometer using SOI process is also presented in this thesis. The significantly increased number of channels is expected to improve the noise performance. Inspired by the advantages of combining MET and MEMS technologies on the development of seismometer, a low frequency accelerometer utilizing MET technology with post-CMOS-compatible fabrication processes is developed. In the fabricated accelerometer, the complicated fabrication of mass-spring system in solid-state MEMS accelerometer is replaced with a much simpler post-CMOS-compatible process containing only deposition of a four-electrode MET structure on a planar substrate, and a liquid inertia mass of an electrolyte droplet encapsulated by oil film. The fabrication process does not involve focused ion beam milling which is used in the micro MET seismometer fabrication, thus the cost is lowered. Furthermore, the planar structure and the novel idea of using an oil film as the sealing diaphragm eliminate the complicated three-dimensional packaging of the seismometer. The fabricated device achieves 10.8 V/G sensitivity at 20 Hz with nearly flat response over the frequency range from 1 Hz to 50 Hz, and a low noise floor of 75 μG/√Hz at 20 Hz.

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Date Created
2014

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Micromachined acoustic programmable tunable finite impulse response (FIR) filters for microwave applications

Description

This dissertation proposes a miniature FIR filter that works at microwave frequencies, whose filter response can ideally be digitally programmed. Such a frequency agile device can find applications in cellular communications and wireless networking. The basic concept of the FIR

This dissertation proposes a miniature FIR filter that works at microwave frequencies, whose filter response can ideally be digitally programmed. Such a frequency agile device can find applications in cellular communications and wireless networking. The basic concept of the FIR filter utilizes a low loss acoustic waveguide of appropriate geometry that acts as a traveling wave tapped-delay line. The input RF signal is applied by an array of capacitive transducers at various locations on the acoustic waveguide at one end that excites waves of a propagating acoustic mode with varying spatial delays and amplitudes which interfere as they propagate. The output RF signal is picked up at the other end of the waveguide by another array of capacitive transducers. Tuning of the FIR filter coefficients is realized by controlling the DC voltage profile applied to the individual transducers which essentially shapes the overall filter response. Equivalent circuit modeling of the capacitive transducer, acoustic waveguide and transducer-line coupling is presented in this dissertation. A theoretical model for the filter is developed from a general theory of an array of transducers exciting a waveguide and is used to obtain a set of filter design equations. A MATLAB based circuit simulator is developed to simulate the filter responses. Design parameters and simulation results obtained for an example waveguide structure are presented and compared to the values estimated by the theoretical model. A waveguide structure utilizing the Rayleigh-like mode of a ridge is then introduced. A semi-analytical method to obtain propagating elastic modes of such a ridge waveguide etched in an anisotropic crystal is presented. Microfabrication of a filter based on ridges etched in single crystal Silicon is discussed along with details of the challenges faced. Finally, future work and a few alternative designs are presented that can have a better chance of success. Analysis and modeling work to this point has given a good understanding of the working principles, performance tradeoffs and fabrication pitfalls of the proposed device. With the appropriate acoustic waveguide structure, the proposed device could make it possible to realize miniature programmable FIR filters in the GHz range.

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Date Created
2013

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An electrical stimulus based built in self test (BIST) circuit for capacitive MEMS accelerometer

Description

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is one of the fastest growing field in silicon industry. Low cost production is key for any company to improve their market share. MEMS testing is challenging since input to test a MEMS device require

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is one of the fastest growing field in silicon industry. Low cost production is key for any company to improve their market share. MEMS testing is challenging since input to test a MEMS device require physical stimulus like acceleration, pressure etc. Also, MEMS device vary with process and requires calibration to make them reliable. This increases test cost and testing time. This challenge can be overcome by combining electrical stimulus based testing along with statistical analysis on MEMS response for electrical stimulus and also limited physical stimulus response data. This thesis proposes electrical stimulus based built in self test(BIST) which can be used to get MEMS data and later this data can be used for statistical analysis. A capacitive MEMS accelerometer is considered to test this BIST approach. This BIST circuit overhead is less and utilizes most of the standard readout circuit. This thesis discusses accelerometer response for electrical stimulus and BIST architecture. As a part of this BIST circuit, a second order sigma delta modulator has been designed. This modulator has a sampling frequency of 1MHz and bandwidth of 6KHz. SNDR of 60dB is achieved with 1Vpp differential input signal and 3.3V supply

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Date Created
2013

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3D system-on-package (SoP) signal generator to control MEMS movable microelectrode arrays

Description

Microelectrodes have been used as the neural interface to record brain's neural activities. Most of these electrodes are fixed positioned. Neural signal normally degrades over time due to the body immune response and brain micromotion that move the neurons away

Microelectrodes have been used as the neural interface to record brain's neural activities. Most of these electrodes are fixed positioned. Neural signal normally degrades over time due to the body immune response and brain micromotion that move the neurons away from the microelectrode. MEMS technology under SUMMiT VTM processes has developed miniaturized version of moveable microelectrodes that have the ability to recover the neural signal degradation by searching new cluster of neurons. To move the MEMS microelectrode a combination of four voltage waveforms must be applied to four thermally actuated microactuators. Previous design has used OmneticTM interconnect to transfer the waveforms from the external signal generators to the MEMS device. Unfortunately, the mechanism to attach and detach the OmneticTM interconnect introduce mechanical stress into the brain tissue that often caused raptures in the blood vessel. The goal of this project is to create an integrated System-On-Package Signal Generator that can be implanted on the brain of a rodent. A wireless system and a microcontroller are integrated together with the signal generators. The integrated system can be used to generate a series of voltage waveforms that can be customized to drive an array of MEMS movable microelectrodes when a triggered signal is received wirelessly. 3D stacking technique has been used to develop this Integrated System. 3D stacks lead to several favorable factors, such as (a) reduction in the power consumption of the system, (b) reduction in the overall form-factor of the package, and (c) significant reduction the weight of the package. There are a few challenges that must be overcome in this project, such as a commercially available microcontroller normally have an output voltage of 3.3 V to 5.5 V; however, a voltage of 7 - 8V is required to move the MEMS movable microelectrodes. To acquire higher density neural recording, more number of microelectrodes are needed. In this project, SoP Signal Generator is design to drive independently 3 moveable microelectrodes. Therefore, 12 voltage waveform are required. . However, the use of 12 signal generators is not a workable option since the system will be significantly large. This brings us to the other challenge, the limiting size of the rodent brain. Due to this factor, the SoP Signal Generator has to be deisgned to be able to fit without causing much pressure to the rodent's brain. For the first challenge, which is the limited output voltage of 3.3V on the microcontroller, the RC555 timers are used as an amplifier in addition to generating the signals. Demultiplexers have been for the next challenge, which is the need of 24 waveforms to drive 3 electrodes. For each waveform, 1 demultiplexer is used, making a total of 4 demultiplexers used in the entire system, which is a significant improvement from using 12 signal generators. The last challenge can be approached using 3D system stacking technique as mentioned above. The research aims of this project can be described as follows: (1) the testing and realization of the system part, and the designing of the system in a PCB level, (2) implementing and testing the SoP Signal Generator with the MEMS movable microelectrodes, The final outcome of this project can be used not only for neural applications, but also for more general applications that requires customized signal generations and wireless data transmission.

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Date Created
2012

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Power management interface circuit for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) bio-sensing and chemical sensing applications

Description

Power supply management is important for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) bio-sensing and chemical sensing applications. The dissertation focuses on discussion of accessibility to different power sources and supply tuning in sensing applications. First, the dissertation presents a high efficiency DC-DC converter for

Power supply management is important for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) bio-sensing and chemical sensing applications. The dissertation focuses on discussion of accessibility to different power sources and supply tuning in sensing applications. First, the dissertation presents a high efficiency DC-DC converter for a miniaturized Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC). The miniaturized MFC produces up to approximately 10µW with an output voltage of 0.4-0.7V. Such a low voltage, which is also load dependent, prevents the MFC to directly drive low power electronics. A PFM (Pulse Frequency Modulation) type DC-DC converter in DCM (Discontinuous Conduction Mode) is developed to address the challenges and provides a load independent output voltage with high conversion efficiency. The DC-DC converter, implemented in UMC 0.18µm technology, has been thoroughly characterized, coupled with the MFC. At 0.9V output, the converter has a peak efficiency of 85% with 9µW load, highest efficiency over prior publication. Energy could be harvested wirelessly and often has profound impacts on system performance. The dissertation reports a side-by-side comparison of two wireless and passive sensing systems: inductive and electromagnetic (EM) couplings for an application of in-situ and real-time monitoring of wafer cleanliness in semiconductor facilities. The wireless system, containing the MEMS sensor works with battery-free operations. Two wireless systems based on inductive and EM couplings have been implemented. The working distance of the inductive coupling system is limited by signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) while that of the EM coupling is limited by the coupled power. The implemented on-wafer transponders achieve a working distance of 6 cm and 25 cm with a concentration resolution of less than 2% (4 ppb for a 200 ppb solution) for inductive and EM couplings, respectively. Finally, the supply tuning is presented in bio-sensing application to mitigate temperature sensitivity. The FBAR (film bulk acoustic resonator) based oscillator is an attractive method in label-free sensing application. Molecular interactions on FBAR surface induce mass change, which results in resonant frequency shift of FBAR. While FBAR has a high-Q to be sensitive to the molecular interactions, FBAR has finite temperature sensitivity. A temperature compensation technique is presented that improves the temperature coefficient of a 1.625 GHz FBAR-based oscillator from -118 ppm/K to less than 1 ppm/K by tuning the supply voltage of the oscillator. The tuning technique adds no additional component and has a large frequency tunability of -4305 ppm/V.

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Date Created
2012

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Graphene Growth and Transfer on Ultrathin Platinum Films

Description

Graphene is a very strong two-dimensional material with a lot of potential applications in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In this research, graphene is being optimized for use in a 5 m x 5 m graphene resonator. To work properly, this graphene

Graphene is a very strong two-dimensional material with a lot of potential applications in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In this research, graphene is being optimized for use in a 5 m x 5 m graphene resonator. To work properly, this graphene resonator must have a uniform strain across all manufactured devices. To reduce strain induced in graphene sheets grown for use in these resonators, evaporated platinum has been used in this investigation due to its relatively lower surface roughness compared to copper films. The final goal is to have the layer of ultrathin platinum (<=200 nm) deposited on the MEMS graphene resonator and used to grow graphene directly onto the devices to remove the manual transfer step due to its inscalability. After growth, graphene is coated with polymer and the platinum is then etched. This investigation concentrated on the transfer process of graphene onto Si/SiO2 substrate from the platinum films. It was determined that the ideal platinum etchant was aqua regia at a volumetric ratio of 6:3:1 (H2O:HCl:HNO3). This concentration was dilute enough to preserve the polymer and graphene layer, but strong enough to etch within a day. Type and thickness of polymer support layers were also investigated. PMMA at a thickness of 200 nm was ideal because it was easy to remove with acetone and strong enough to support the graphene during the etch process. A reference growth recipe was used in this investigation, but now that the transfer has been demonstrated, growth can be optimized for even thinner films.

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Date Created
2016-12

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Towards adaptive micro-robotic neural interfaces: autonomous navigation of microelectrodes in the brain for optimal neural recording

Description

Advances in implantable MEMS technology has made possible adaptive micro-robotic implants that can track and record from single neurons in the brain. Development of autonomous neural interfaces opens up exciting possibilities of micro-robots performing standard electrophysiological techniques that would previously

Advances in implantable MEMS technology has made possible adaptive micro-robotic implants that can track and record from single neurons in the brain. Development of autonomous neural interfaces opens up exciting possibilities of micro-robots performing standard electrophysiological techniques that would previously take researchers several hundred hours to train and achieve the desired skill level. It would result in more reliable and adaptive neural interfaces that could record optimal neural activity 24/7 with high fidelity signals, high yield and increased throughput. The main contribution here is validating adaptive strategies to overcome challenges in autonomous navigation of microelectrodes inside the brain. The following issues pose significant challenges as brain tissue is both functionally and structurally dynamic: a) time varying mechanical properties of the brain tissue-microelectrode interface due to the hyperelastic, viscoelastic nature of brain tissue b) non-stationarities in the neural signal caused by mechanical and physiological events in the interface and c) the lack of visual feedback of microelectrode position in brain tissue. A closed loop control algorithm is proposed here for autonomous navigation of microelectrodes in brain tissue while optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio of multi-unit neural recordings. The algorithm incorporates a quantitative understanding of constitutive mechanical properties of soft viscoelastic tissue like the brain and is guided by models that predict stresses developed in brain tissue during movement of the microelectrode. An optimal movement strategy is developed that achieves precise positioning of microelectrodes in the brain by minimizing the stresses developed in the surrounding tissue during navigation and maximizing the speed of movement. Results of testing the closed-loop control paradigm in short-term rodent experiments validated that it was possible to achieve a consistently high quality SNR throughout the duration of the experiment. At the systems level, new generation of MEMS actuators for movable microelectrode array are characterized and the MEMS device operation parameters are optimized for improved performance and reliability. Further, recommendations for packaging to minimize the form factor of the implant; design of device mounting and implantation techniques of MEMS microelectrode array to enhance the longevity of the implant are also included in a top-down approach to achieve a reliable brain interface.

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Date Created
2013

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Development of deformable electronics using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based fabrication technologies

Description

This dissertation presents my work on development of deformable electronics using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based fabrication technologies. In recent years, deformable electronics are coming to revolutionize the functionality of microelectronics seamlessly with their application environment, ranging from various consumer electronics

This dissertation presents my work on development of deformable electronics using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based fabrication technologies. In recent years, deformable electronics are coming to revolutionize the functionality of microelectronics seamlessly with their application environment, ranging from various consumer electronics to bio-medical applications. Many researchers have studied this area, and a wide variety of devices have been fabricated. One traditional way is to directly fabricate electronic devices on flexible substrate through low-temperature processes. These devices suffered from constrained functionality due to the temperature limit. Another transfer printing approach has been developed recently. The general idea is to fabricate functional devices on hard and planar substrates using standard processes then transferred by elastomeric stamps and printed on desired flexible and stretchable substrates. The main disadvantages are that the transfer printing step may limit the yield. The third method is "flexible skins" which silicon substrates are thinned down and structured into islands and sandwiched by two layers of polymer. The main advantage of this method is post CMOS compatible. Based on this technology, we successfully fabricated a 3-D flexible thermal sensor for intravascular flow monitoring. The final product of the 3-D sensor has three independent sensing elements equally distributed around the wall of catheter (1.2 mm in diameter) with 120° spacing. This structure introduces three independent information channels, and cross-comparisons among all readings were utilized to eliminate experimental error and provide better measurement results. The novel fabrication and assembly technology can also be applied to other catheter based biomedical devices. A step forward inspired by the ancient art of folding, origami, which creating three-dimensional (3-D) structures from two-dimensional (2-D) sheets through a high degree of folding along the creases. Based on this idea, we developed a novel method to enable better deformability. One example is origami-enabled silicon solar cells. The solar panel can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintain reasonable good performance (less than 30% output power density drop) upon 40 times cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach can be readily applied to other functional devices, ranging from sensors, displays, antenna, to energy storage devices.

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Date Created
2014

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System design and evaluation of a low cost epidural intracranial pressure monitoring system, integrable with ECoG electrodes

Description

Intracranial pressure is an important parameter to monitor, and elevated intracranial pressure can be life threatening. Elevated intracranial pressure is indicative of distress in the brain attributed by conditions such as aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, hydrocephalus, stroke, or

Intracranial pressure is an important parameter to monitor, and elevated intracranial pressure can be life threatening. Elevated intracranial pressure is indicative of distress in the brain attributed by conditions such as aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, hydrocephalus, stroke, or meningitis.

Electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings are invaluable in understanding epilepsy and detecting seizure zones. However, ECoG electrodes cause a foreign body mass effect, swelling, and pneumocephaly, which results in elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). Thus, the aim of this work is to design an intracranial pressure monitoring system that could augment ECoG electrodes.

A minimally invasive, low-cost epidural intracranial pressure monitoring system is developed for this purpose, using a commercial pressure transducer available for biomedical applications. The system is composed of a pressure transducer, sensing cup, electronics, and data acquisition system. The pressure transducer is a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based die that works on piezoresistive phenomenon with dielectric isolation for direct contact with fluids.

The developed system was bench tested and verified in an animal model to confirm the efficacy of the system for intracranial pressure monitoring. The system has a 0.1 mmHg accuracy and a 2% error for the 0-10 mmHg range, with resolution of 0.01 mmHg. This system serves as a minimally invasive (2 mm burr hole) epidural ICP monitor, which could augment existing ECoG electrode arrays, to simultaneously measure intracranial pressure along with the neural signals.

This device could also be employed with brain implants that causes elevation in ICP due to tissue - implant interaction often leading to edema. This research explores the concept and feasibility for integrating the sensing component directly on to the ECoG electrode arrays.

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Date Created
2015