Matching Items (12)

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Low Noise and Low Leakage Electric Field Imaging

Description

Imaging using electric fields could provide a cheaper, safer, and easier alternative to the standard methods used for imaging. The viability of electric field imaging at very low frequencies using

Imaging using electric fields could provide a cheaper, safer, and easier alternative to the standard methods used for imaging. The viability of electric field imaging at very low frequencies using D-dot sensors has already been investigated and proven. The new goal is to determine if imaging is viable at high frequencies. In order to accomplish this, the operational amplifiers used in the very low frequency imaging test set up must be replaced with ones that have higher bandwidth. The trade-off of using these amplifiers is that they have a typical higher input leakage current on the order of 100 compared to the standard. Using a modified circuit design technique that reduces input leakage current of the operational amplifiers used in the imaging test setup, a printed circuit board with D-dot sensors is fabricated to identify the frequency limitations of electric field imaging. Data is collected at both low and high frequencies as well as low peak voltage. The data is then analyzed to determine the range in intensity of electric field and frequency that this circuit low-leakage design can accurately detect a signal. Data is also collected using another printed circuit board that uses the standard circuit design technique. The data taken from the different boards is compared to identify if the modified circuit design technique allows for higher sensitivity imaging. In conclusion, this research supports that using low-leakage design techniques can allow for signal detection comparable to that of the standard circuit design. The low-leakage design allowed for sensitivity within a factor two to that of the standard design. Although testing at higher frequencies was limited, signal detection for the low-leakage design was reliable up until 97 kHz, but further experimentation is needed to determine the upper frequency limits.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Electric Field Sensing of High Voltage Transmission Lines in Rural Areas

Description

This is a project to create an electric field sensing system which is fully portable. This system should provide accurate electric field readings from transmission lines allowing abstraction to find the voltage on the transmission line.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Radiation detection and imaging: neutrons and electric fields

Description

The work presented in this manuscript has the overarching theme of radiation. The two forms of radiation of interest are neutrons, i.e. nuclear, and electric fields. The ability

The work presented in this manuscript has the overarching theme of radiation. The two forms of radiation of interest are neutrons, i.e. nuclear, and electric fields. The ability to detect such forms of radiation have significant security implications that could also be extended to very practical industrial applications. The goal is therefore to detect, and even image, such radiation sources.

The method to do so revolved around the concept of building large-area sensor arrays. By covering a large area, we can increase the probability of detection and gather more data to build a more complete and clearer view of the environment. Large-area circuitry can be achieved cost-effectively by leveraging the thin-film transistor process of the display industry. With production of displays increasing with the explosion of mobile devices and continued growth in sales of flat panel monitors and television, the cost to build a unit continues to decrease.

Using a thin-film process also allows for flexible electronics, which could be taken advantage of in-house at the Flexible Electronics and Display Center. Flexible electronics implies new form factors and applications that would not otherwise be possible with their single crystal counterparts. To be able to effectively use thin-film technology, novel ways of overcoming the drawbacks of the thin-film process, namely the lower performance scale.

The two deliverable devices that underwent development are a preamplifier used in an active pixel sensor for neutron detection and a passive electric field imaging array. This thesis will cover the theory and process behind realizing these devices.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Influence of grounded back electrode on AC creepage breakdown characteristics

Description

This thesis focuses on the influence of a grounded back electrode on the breakdown characteristics. The back electrode is an electrode which attaches at the back side of solid insulation.

This thesis focuses on the influence of a grounded back electrode on the breakdown characteristics. The back electrode is an electrode which attaches at the back side of solid insulation. Insulation with grounded back electrode is a common type of insulation which is adopted in many high voltage power devices. While most of the power equipment work under AC voltage, most of the research on back electrode is focused on the DC voltage. Therefore, it is necessary to deeply investigate the influence of the back electrode under AC applied voltage. To investigate the influence of back electrode, the research is separated into two phases, which are the experiment phase and the electric field analysis phase. In the experiments, the breakdown voltages for both with and without back electrode are obtained. The experimental results indicate that the grounded back electrode does have impact on the breakdown characteristics. Then with the breakdown voltage, based on real experiment model, the electric field is analyzed using computer software. From the field simulation result, it is found that the back electrode also influences the electric field distribution. The inter relationship between the electric field and breakdown voltage is the key to explain all the results and phenomena observed during the experiment. Additionally, the influence of insulation barrier on breakdown is also investigated. Compared to the case without ground electrode, inserting a barrier into the gap can more significantly improve breakdown voltage.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Performance verification of the raptor guard installed in sub transmission systems

Description

In sub transmission systems, many more raptor deaths have been recorded near metal poles rather than wood poles. The metal pole, which is reliable in structure but also grounded, may

In sub transmission systems, many more raptor deaths have been recorded near metal poles rather than wood poles. The metal pole, which is reliable in structure but also grounded, may increase the risk of electrocution when raptors perch on the insulator. This thesis focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of the raptor guard to prevent both debilitating and lethal electrocutions to local wildlife in 69 kV sub transmission systems. First, the two-dimensional (2D) finite difference methods (FDM) were proposed to solve the Poisson and Laplace equations, which describe the electric field. Second, the verification of the FDM algorithm was made based on a parallel-plate capacitor model. Then, the potential and the electric field were simulated by the raptor-insulator model to evaluate the possibility of flashover and leakage current under various conceivable scenarios. Third, several dielectric performance experiments were implemented to gain insight into the physical property of the raptor guard developed by the Salt River Project (SRP) as an example. The proposed initial-tracking-voltage and time-to-track experiments tested the ability of the guard, which is designed to prevent the tracking phenomenon under a contaminated situation such as rain, fog, and snow. A data acquisition also collected the leakage current data for the comparison of maximum raptor tolerance. Furthermore, the puncture voltage of this guard material was performed by the dielectric breakdown voltage experiment in an oil-covered container. With the combination of the model simulation and the experiments in this research, the raptor guard was proven to be practical and beneficial in sub transmission system.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Performance analysis of composite insulators up to 1200 kV ac using electric field calculations

Description

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system

This research work illustrates the use of software packages based on the concept of nu-merical analysis technique to evaluate the electric field and voltage distribution along composite insulators for system voltages ranging from 138 kV up to 1200 kV ac. A part of the calculations was made using the 3D software package, COULOMB 8.0, based on the concept of Boundary Element Method (BEM). The electric field was calculated under dry and wet conditions. Compo-site insulators experience more electrical stress when compared to porcelain and are also more prone to damage caused by corona activity. The work presented here investigates the effect of corona rings of specific dimensions and bundled conductors on the electric field along composite insulators. Inappropriate placement or dimensions of corona rings could enhance the electric field instead of mitigating it. Corona ring optimization for a 1000 kV composite insulator was per-formed by changing parameters of the ring, such as the diameter of the ring, thickness of the ring tube and the projection of the ring from the high voltage energized end fitting. Grading rings were designed for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) systems that use two units of composite insulators in pa-rallel. The insulation distance, which bears 50% of the total applied voltage, is raised by 61% with the grading ring installed, when compared to the distance without the grading ring. In other words, the electric field and voltage distribution was found to be more linear with the application of grad-ing rings. The second part of this project was carried out using the EPRI designed software EPIC. This is based on the concept of Charge Simulation method (CSM). Comparisons were made be-tween electric field magnitude along composite insulators used for suspension and dead end configuration for system voltages ranging from 138 kV to 500 kV. It was found that the dead end composite insulators experience significantly higher electrical stress when compared to their suspension counterpart. It was also concluded that this difference gets more prominent as the system voltage increases. A comparison made between electric field distribution along composite insulators used in single and double dead end structures suggested that the electric stress experienced by the single dead end composite insulators is relatively higher when compared to double dead end composite insulators.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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Heating glass-forming materials by time dependent electric fields

Description

The disordered nature of glass-forming melts results in two features for its dynamics i.e. non-Arrhenius and non-exponential behavior. Their macroscopic properties are studied through observing spatial heterogeneity of the molecular

The disordered nature of glass-forming melts results in two features for its dynamics i.e. non-Arrhenius and non-exponential behavior. Their macroscopic properties are studied through observing spatial heterogeneity of the molecular relaxation. Experiments performed in a low-frequency range tracks the flow of energy in time on slow degrees of freedom and transfer to the vibrational heat bath of the liquid, as is the case for microwave heating. High field measurements on supercooled liquids result in generation of fictive temperatures of the absorbing modes which eventually result in elevated true bath temperatures. The absorbed energy allows us to quantify the changes in the 'configurational', real sample, and electrode temperatures. The slow modes absorb energy on the structural relaxation time scale causing the increase of configurational temperature resulting in the rise of dielectric loss. Time-resolved high field dielectric relaxation experiments show the impact of 'configurational heating' for low frequencies of the electric field and samples that are thermally clamped to a thermostat. Relevant thermal behavior of monohydroxy alcohols is considerably different from the cases of simple non-associating liquids, due to their distinct origins of the prominent dielectric loss. Monohydroxy alcohols display very small changes due to observed nonthermal effects without increasing sample temperature. These changes have been reflected in polymers in our measurements.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Electric field calculations on dry-type medium voltage current transformers

Description

This research presents potential and electric field calculations on medium voltage (MV) epoxy insulated outdoor current transformers (CTs) using a numeri-cal calculation approach. Two designs of MV dry-type epoxy insulated

This research presents potential and electric field calculations on medium voltage (MV) epoxy insulated outdoor current transformers (CTs) using a numeri-cal calculation approach. Two designs of MV dry-type epoxy insulated CTs were modeled using 3D field simulation software COULOMB® 9.0. Potential and elec-tric fields were calculated based on boundary element method. Different condi-tions such as dry exterior surface, wet exterior surface and internal voids were considered. The research demonstrates that the presence of internal conductors in CTs results in a less severe surface electric field distribution when compared to outdoor insulators of the same voltage range and type. The high electric field near the exited end triple-point of the CT reduces. This remained true even under wet conditions establishing better outdoor performance of CTs than outdoor insulators which have no internal conductors. The effect of internal conductors on voids within the insulation structure was also established. As a down side, internal voids in CTs experience higher electric field stress than in conductor-less insulators. The work recognizes that internal conducting parts in dry type CTs improves their outdoor performance when compared to electrical equipment without internal conductors.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Insulator flashover probability investigation based on numerical electric field calculation and random walk theory

Description

Overhead high voltage transmission lines are widely used around the world to deliver power to customers because of their low losses and high transmission capability. Well-coordinated insulation systems are capable

Overhead high voltage transmission lines are widely used around the world to deliver power to customers because of their low losses and high transmission capability. Well-coordinated insulation systems are capable of withstanding lightning and switching surge voltages. However, flashover is a serious issue to insulation systems, especially if the insulator is covered by a pollution layer. Many experiments in the laboratory have been conducted to investigate this issue. Since most experiments are time-consuming and costly, good mathematical models could contribute to predicting the insulator flashover performance as well as guide the experiments. This dissertation proposes a new statistical model to calculate the flashover probability of insulators under different supply voltages and contamination levels. An insulator model with water particles in the air is simulated to analyze the effects of rain and mist on flashover performance in reality. Additionally, insulator radius and number of sheds affect insulator surface resistivity and leakage distance. These two factors are studied to improve the efficiency of insulator design. This dissertation also discusses the impact of insulator surface hydrophobicity on flashover voltage.

Because arc propagation is a stochastic process, an arc could travel on different paths based on the electric field distribution. Some arc paths jump between insulator sheds instead of travelling along the insulator surfaces. The arc jumping could shorten the leakage distance and intensify the electric field. Therefore, the probabilities of arc jumping at different locations of sheds are also calculated in this dissertation.

The new simulation model is based on numerical electric field calculation and random walk theory. The electric field is calculated by the variable-grid finite difference method. The random walk theory from the Monte Carlo Method is utilized to describe the random propagation process of arc growth. This model will permit insulator engineers to design the reasonable geometry of insulators, to reduce the flashover phenomena under a wide range of operating conditions.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Optimum corona ring design for high voltage compact transmission lines using Gaussian process model

Description

Electric utilities are exploring new technologies to cope up with the in-crease in electricity demand and power transfer capabilities of transmission lines. Compact transmission lines and high phase order systems

Electric utilities are exploring new technologies to cope up with the in-crease in electricity demand and power transfer capabilities of transmission lines. Compact transmission lines and high phase order systems are few of the techniques which enhance the power transfer capability of transmission lines without requiring any additional right-of-way. This research work investigates the impact of compacting high voltage transmission lines and high phase order systems on the surface electric field of composite insulators, a key factor deciding service performance of insulators. The electric field analysis was done using COULOMB 9.0, a 3D software package which uses a numerical analysis technique based on Boundary Element Method (BEM). 3D models of various types of standard transmission towers used for 230 kV, 345 kV and 500 kV level were modeled with different insulators con-figurations and number of circuits. Standard tower configuration models were compacted by reducing the clearance from live parts in steps of 10%. It was found that the standard tower configuration can be compacted to 30% without violating the minimum safety clearance mandated by NESC standards. The study shows that surface electric field on insulators for few of the compact structures exceeded the maximum allowable limit even if corona rings were installed. As a part of this study, a Gaussian process model based optimization pro-gram was developed to find the optimum corona ring dimensions to limit the electric field within stipulated values. The optimization program provides the dimen-sions of corona ring, its placement from the high voltage end for a given dry arc length of insulator and system voltage. JMP, a statistical computer package and AMPL, a computer language widely used form optimization was used for optimi-zation program. The results obtained from optimization program validated the industrial standards.

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Date Created
  • 2012