Matching Items (11)

Digging into National Park Funding: An Analysis of Selected Projects in Yellowstone and Isle Royale

Description

With 2016 marking the 100th Anniversary of the National Park Service (NPS), important discussions regarding the future of America's beloved parks and respective government funding must take place. Imagine all

With 2016 marking the 100th Anniversary of the National Park Service (NPS), important discussions regarding the future of America's beloved parks and respective government funding must take place. Imagine all the money, including tax revenue, flowing through America's national parks system, and where is that money destined for in the future? National park funding will factor greatly into determining the future of America's NPS and individual parks. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate where and how government funding, for the present and future, is distributed throughout the parks protected under the NPS. Through personal experiences as a child, national parks consistently provide a unique exposure to and an education of the natural world, which are rare finds when growing up in suburban or metropolitan regions. Narrowing down, this analysis will focus on government disbursements to Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone) and Isle Royale National Park (Isle Royale) with specifics on two budgeted projects crucial to park survival. Yellowstone and Isle Royale each request funding for a project crucial to the park's ecosystem and a project intended to improve guest services for visitors. Closing comments will provide recommendations for Yellowstone, Isle Royale and the NPS, including effects of President Trump's 2018 Government Proposed Budget, in an attempt to offer forward thinking about national parks. The projects and respective funding as detailed in this analysis have a forward-thinking focus as other projects included in the NPS requested funding budgets consider as well. Current actions and efforts are crucial to the long-term life and of this country's national parks for future generations to come.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Disturbance signatures and sediment characteristics in aeolian dune landscapes

Description

Human-environment interactions in aeolian (windblown) systems has focused research on<br/>human’s role in causing and aiding recovery from natural and anthropogenic disturbance. There<br/>is room for improvement in understanding the best methods

Human-environment interactions in aeolian (windblown) systems has focused research on<br/>human’s role in causing and aiding recovery from natural and anthropogenic disturbance. There<br/>is room for improvement in understanding the best methods and considerations for manual<br/>coastal foredune restoration. Furthermore, the extent to which humans play a role in changing the<br/>shape and surface textures of quartz sand grains is poorly understood. The goal of this thesis is<br/>two-fold: 1) quantify the geomorphic effectiveness of a multi-year manually rebuilt foredune and<br/>2) compare the shapes and microtextures on disturbed and undisturbed quartz sand grains. For<br/>the rebuilt foredune, uncrewed aerial systems (UAS) were used to survey the site, collecting<br/>photos to create digital surface models (DSMs). These DSMs were compared at discrete<br/>moments in time to create a sediment budget. Water levels and cross-shore modeling is also<br/>considered to predict the decadal evolution of the site. In the two years since rebuilding, the<br/>foredune has been stable, but not geomorphically resilient. Modeling shows landward foredune<br/>retreat and beach widening. For the quartz grains, t-testing of shape characteristics showed that<br/>there may be differences in the mean circularity between grains from off-highway vehicle and<br/>non-riding areas. Quartz grains from a variety of coastal and inland dunes were imaged using a<br/>scanning electron microscopy to search for evidence of anthropogenically-induced<br/>microtextures. On grains from Oceano Dunes in California, encouraging textures like parallel<br/>striations, grain fracturing, and linear conchoidal fractures provide exploratory evidence of<br/>anthropogenic microtextures. More focused research is recommended to confirm this exploratory<br/>work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Synthesizing styles: international influence on organ music in Restoration England

Description

Following the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, musical culture gradually began to thrive under the support of royal patronage and the emerging middle class. The newly crowned Charles

Following the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, musical culture gradually began to thrive under the support of royal patronage and the emerging middle class. The newly crowned Charles II brought with him a love of French music acquired during his time in exile at the court of his cousin, the young Louis XIV. Organ builders, most notably Bernard Smith and Renatus Harris, brought new life to the instrument, drawing from their experience on the Continent to build larger instruments with colorful solo stops, offering more possibilities for performers and composers. Although relatively few notated organ works survive from the Restoration period, composers generated a niche body of organ repertoire exploring compositional genres inspired by late 17th-century English instruments.

The primary organ composers of the Restoration period are Matthew Locke, John Blow, and Henry Purcell; these three musicians began to take advantage of new possibilities in organ composition, particularly the use of two-manuals with a solo register, and their writing displays the strong influence of French and Italian compositional styles. Each adapts Continental forms and techniques for the English organ, drawing from such forms as the French overture and récit pour le basse et dessus, and the Italian toccata and canzona. English organ composers from the Restoration period borrow form, stylistic techniques, ornamentation, and even direct musical quotations, to create a body of repertoire synthesizing both French and Italian styles.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The influence of soil characteristics on Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) post wild fire restoration efforts

Description

The Cave Creek Complex fires of June and July of 2005 north of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. burned 248,310 acres of Sonoran desert, primarily on the Tonto National Forest, USFS. The

The Cave Creek Complex fires of June and July of 2005 north of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. burned 248,310 acres of Sonoran desert, primarily on the Tonto National Forest, USFS. The fires consumed multiple stands of the keystone species Carnegiea gigantea, the saguaro cactus. Restoration efforts in late spring 2007 involved the monitoring of 200 transplanted saguaro cacti over a two year period for overall establishment and success. Observation of local saguaro distribution suggests that soil factors might influence saguaro growth. Therefore, soil samples were collected from each transplant location and analyzed for percentage coarse fragments, texture, pH and electrical conductivity as soil collection and analysis of these variables are relatively inexpensive and expedient. Regression analysis was used to determine which, if any of these soil characteristics significantly correlated with plant growth. The results of this study found significant correlation between saguaro transplant growth and the soil variables of clay content and pH, but no correlation between saguaro growth and coarse fragment percentages or electrical conductivity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Vegetation community responses to juniper slash/burn and broadcast burn on a semi-desert tobosa grassland

Description

ABSTRACT

Modern management techniques to maintain rangelands and deter encroachment of juniper into grassland habitats currently includes fire prescription. Additionally, a large body of research has indicated that fire has multiple

ABSTRACT

Modern management techniques to maintain rangelands and deter encroachment of juniper into grassland habitats currently includes fire prescription. Additionally, a large body of research has indicated that fire has multiple benefits to grasslands resulting in increased diversity of flora and fauna. In the semi-arid grassland of the Agua Fria National Monument, fire treatments may be able to provide similar advantages. This study considers two methods of fire prescription on the Agua Fria National Monument within central Arizona: 1) Juniper thinning with pile burning; 2) Broadcast burning.

The Agua Fria National Monument upland ecosystem has limited research focusing on semi-arid grassland and juniper stand’s response to implemented treatments over time. The four year monitoring duration of this study aids in assessing the outcome of treatments and reaching the objectives of the management plan.

Vegetation in 981 quadrats was measured for species richness, cover, densities, height, and biomass during the fire prescription period from 2009 through 2013. The study was divided into two treatment types: 1) Juniper cutting and pile burn; 2) Broadcast burn areas in open grasslands.

Results of this study provide consistent examples of vegetative change and community movement towards positive response. Percent composition of overall vegetation is 5 – 30% with >50% of litter, bare ground and rock cover. Juniper sites have immediate consequences from tree thinning activities that may be beneficial to wildlife, particularly as connective corridors pronghorn antelope. Grass height was significantly reduced as well as forb density. Forbs that are highly responsive to environmental factors indicate an increase after the second year. Analysis results from grasslands indicated that cactus and unpalatable shrubs are reduced by fire but a return to pre-burn conditions occur by the third year after fire disturbance. Percent cover of perennial grasses has shown a slow increase. Wright’s buckwheat, a palatable shrub, has increased in density and height, indicating fire adaptations in the species. Species richness was reduced in the first year but increase in density continues into the third year after burn.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Eco-physiological implications of conservation of dhubs (Uromastyx aegyptius) in Kuwait

Description

Desert environments provide considerable challenges to organisms because of high temperatures and limited food and water resources. Accordingly, desert species have behavioral and physiological traits that enable them to

Desert environments provide considerable challenges to organisms because of high temperatures and limited food and water resources. Accordingly, desert species have behavioral and physiological traits that enable them to cope with these constraints. However, continuing human activity as well as anticipated further changes to the climate and the vegetative community pose a great challenge to such balance between an organism and its environment. This is especially true in the Arabian Desert, where climate conditions are extreme and environmental disturbances substantial. This study combined laboratory and field components to enhance our understanding of dhub (Uromastyx aegyptius) ecophysiology and determine whether habitat protection influences dhub behavior and physiology.

Results of this study showed that while body mass and body condition consistently diminished as the active season progressed, they were both greater in protected habitats compared to non-protected habitats, regardless of season. Dhubs surface activity and total body water decreased while evaporative water loss and body temperature increased as the active season progressed and ambient temperature got hotter. Total body water was also significantly affected by habitat protection.

Overall, this study revealed that, while habitat protection provided more vegetation, it had little effect on seasonal changes in surface activity. While resource availability in protected areas might allow for larger dhub populations, unprotected areas showed similar body morphometrics, activity, and body temperatures. By developing an understanding of how different coping strategies are linked to particular ecological, morphological, and phylogenetic traits, we will be able to make more accurate predictions regarding the vulnerability of species. By combining previous studies pertaining to conservation of protected species with the results of my study, a number of steps in ecosystem management are recommended to help in the preservation of dhubs in the Kuwaiti desert.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Screwbean mesquite (Prosopis pubescens) die-off: population status at restored and unrestored sites in the lower Colorado River Watershed

Description

Die-off of screwbean mesquite (Prosopis pubescens), a species native to the American Southwest, has been documented regionally within the last decade. Historical causes for episodic mortality of the more widely

Die-off of screwbean mesquite (Prosopis pubescens), a species native to the American Southwest, has been documented regionally within the last decade. Historical causes for episodic mortality of the more widely distributed velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) include water table declines and flood scour. Causes of the recent die-offs of P. pubescens have received little study. Numerous riparian restoration projects have been implemented regionally that include screwbean mesquite. Restoration propagules from foreign sources can introduce diseases, and low genetic diversity plantings may allow for disease irruptions. I asked: 1) Are die-offs associated with a particular age class, 2) Is die-off suggestive of a pathogen or related to specific environmental stressors, 3) Are mortality influences and outcomes the same between restoration and local populations, 4) Are particular land uses and management associated with die-off, and 5) Are populations rebounding or keeping pace with mortality?

I documented the screwbean mesquite population status at rivers and wetlands in Arizona with varying levels of restoration. I used logistic regression and Pearson correlation analysis to explore mortality response to site factors and disease related variables. I compared mortality response and disease severity between local and restoration populations.

Biotic damage surfaced as the most important factor in statistical analyses, suggesting that mortality was caused by a pathogen. Mortality was greatest for young size classes (3 to 14 cm), and biotic damage was higher for individuals at infrequently flooded areas. Strong differences were not found between local and restoration populations – however restoration populations were less stressed and had lower biotic damage. Novel urban and restored sites may provide refuge as site conditions at other locations deteriorate. A culmination of past water diversion, development and land use may be surfacing, rendering riparian species vulnerable to diseases and triggering such events as region-wide die-off.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Sustainability principles and the future of Phoenix, Arizona: framing the Salt River's urban waterway redevelopment

Description

As urban populations rapidly increase in an era of climate change and multiple social and environmental uncertainties, scientists and governments are cultivating knowledge and solutions for the sustainable growth and

As urban populations rapidly increase in an era of climate change and multiple social and environmental uncertainties, scientists and governments are cultivating knowledge and solutions for the sustainable growth and maintenance of cities. Although substantial literature focuses on urban water resource management related to both human and ecological sustainability, few studies assess the unique role of waterway restorations to bridge anthropocentric and ecological concerns in urban environments. To address this gap, my study addressed if well-established sustainability principles are evoked during the nascent discourse of recently proposed urban waterway developments along over fifty miles of Arizona’s Salt River. In this study, a deductive content analysis is used to illuminate the emergence of sustainability principles, the framing of the redevelopment, and to illuminate macro-environmental discourses. Three sustainability principles dominated the discourse: civility and democratic governance; livelihood sufficiency and opportunity; and social-ecological system integrity. These three principles connected to three macro-discourses: economic rationalism; democratic pragmatism; and ecological modernity. These results hold implications for policy and theory and inform urban development processes for improvements to sustainability. As continued densification, in-fill and rapid urbanization continues in the 21st century, more cities are looking to reconstruct urban riverways. Therefore, the emergent sustainability discourse regarding potential revitalizations along Arizona’s Salt River is a manifestation of how waterways are perceived, valued, and essential to urban environments for anthropocentric and ecological needs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Fire and Reseeding Effects on Arizona Upland Plant Community Composition and a Preliminary Floristic Inventory of Cave Creek Regional Park

Description

Baseline community composition data provides a snapshot in time that allows changes in composition to be monitored more effectively and can inform best practices. This study examines Arizona Upland plant

Baseline community composition data provides a snapshot in time that allows changes in composition to be monitored more effectively and can inform best practices. This study examines Arizona Upland plant community composition of the Sonoran Desert through three different lenses: floristic inventory, and fire and reseeding effects.

A floristic inventory was conducted at Cave Creek Regional Park (CCRP), Maricopa County, AZ. One hundred fifty-four taxa were documented within Park boundaries, including 148 species and six infraspecific taxa in 43 families. Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, and Fabaceae accounted for 40% of documented species and annuals accounted for 56% of documented diversity.

Fire effects were studied at three locations within McDowell Sonoran Preserve (MSP), Scottsdale, AZ. These fires occurred throughout the 1990s and recovered naturally. Fire and reseeding effects were studied at the site of a 2005 fire within CCRP that was reseeded immediately following the fire.

Two questions underlie the study regarding fire and reseeding effects: 1) How did fire and reseeding affect the cover and diversity of the plant communities? 2) Is there a difference in distribution of cover between treatments for individual species or growth habits? To address these questions, I compared burned and adjacent unburned treatments at each site, with an additional reseeded treatment added at CCRP.

MSP sites revealed overall diversity and cover was similar between treatments, but succulent cover was significantly reduced, and subshrub cover was significantly greater in the burn treatment. Seventeen species showed significant difference in distribution of cover between treatments.

The CCRP reseeded site revealed 11 of 28 species used in the seed mix persist 12 years post-fire. The reseeded treatment showed greater overall diversity than burned and unburned treatments. Succulent and shrub cover were significantly reduced by fire while subshrub cover was significantly greater in the reseeded treatment. Sixteen species showed significant difference in distribution of cover between treatments.

Fire appears to impact plant community composition across Arizona Upland sites. Choosing species to include in seed mixes for post-fire reseeding, based on knowledge of pre-fire species composition and individual species’ fire responses, may be a useful tool to promote post-fire plant community recovery.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018