Matching Items (14)

Impact of an Educational Video Intervention on the Emotional Well-Being of Patients and Caregivers Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Description

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a unique but intense procedure used to save the lives of patients with hematopoietic malignancies. However, patients and caregivers undergoing HSCT can experience prolonged

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a unique but intense procedure used to save the lives of patients with hematopoietic malignancies. However, patients and caregivers undergoing HSCT can experience prolonged psychological distress due to an intense and distinctive transplant process. Types of psychological distress include anxiety, depression, social isolation, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although this a significant healthcare problem, limited research has been conducted within the HSCT patient and caregiver population to investigate ways to improve their mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an educational video intervention about post-transplant recovery in decreasing emotional distress and promoting emotional well-being in HSCT patients and caregivers. This pilot study utilized a quantitative single-group pretest-posttest design to examine the effect of educational videos on participant's emotional well-being. Four educational videos were developed using information gathered from several reliable bone marrow transplant and cancer websites. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit HSCT patient and caregiver participants. Eleven Caucasian, English-speaking individuals (6 patients, 5 caregivers; 54.5% female; M age= 43.7 years) across the United States were enrolled in the 60-90 minute online intervention. Participant responses were measured using pretest and posttest questionnaires. Results from the study found that the educational videos were effective in decreasing levels of depression and anxiety. Implications for nursing practice include the need to educate HSCT patients and caregivers about transplant recovery to decrease emotional distress. This study demonstrates the impact post-transplant education has on decreasing depression and anxiety in HSCT patients and caregivers.

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  • 2016-12

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Impact of Sleep Restriction on Muscle Recovery Following Eccentric Exercise

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This study was designed with the goal of measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function. Participants in this study consisted of 19 individuals, 11 of which were in

This study was designed with the goal of measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function. Participants in this study consisted of 19 individuals, 11 of which were in the restricted group (age 251) and 8 were in the control group (age 231). Measurements of muscle function included isometric strength, isokinetic velocity, and muscle soreness. Isometric strength and isokinetic velocity were taken for knee extension using a dynamometer. Muscle soreness was measured via a 100mm likert visual analogue scale for the step-up and step-down movements with the effected leg. Measurements were taken at baseline, and 48 hours after the damaging bout of eccentric exercise following either 8 hours of sleep per night or 3 hours of sleep per night. Results show that there were no statistical differences between groups for either measurements of isometric strength, isokinetic velocity, or muscle soreness. Due to possible confounding factors, future research needs to be conducted in order to get a better understanding of the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Assessing Water Distribution Infrastructure Recovery from Component Failures through a Resilience Lens

Description

In developed countries, municipalities deliver drinking water to constituents through water distribution systems. These transport water from a treatment plant to homes, restaurants, and any other site of end use.

In developed countries, municipalities deliver drinking water to constituents through water distribution systems. These transport water from a treatment plant to homes, restaurants, and any other site of end use. Proper water distribution system infrastructure functionality is a critical concern to city planners and managers because component failures within these systems restrict or prevent the ability to deliver water. The reduced capacity to deliver water forces the health and well being of all citizens into jeopardy. The breakdown of a component can even spark the failure of several more components, causing a sequence of cascading failures with catastrophic consequences. To make matters worse, some forms of component failures are unpredictable and it is impossible to foresee every possible failure that could occur. In order to prevent cataclysmic losses that are experienced during system failures, the development of resilient water distribution infrastructure is vital. A resilient water distribution system possesses an adaptive capacity to mitigate the loss of service resulting from component failures. Traditionally, infrastructure resilience research has been retrospective in nature, analyzing the infrastructure system after it suffered a failure event. However, this research project takes water distribution resilience research in a new direction. The research identifies the Sensing Anticipating, Adaptation, and Learning processes that are inherent in the current operations of each component in the water distribution system (pumps, pipes, valves, tanks, nodes). Additional SAAL processes have been recommended for the components that lack adaptive management in current practice. This workis unique in that it applies resilience theory to water distribution systems in an anticipatory manner. This anticipatory application of resilience will provide operators with actionable process for them to implement during failure situations. In this setting, resilience is applied to existing systems for noticeable improvements in operation during failure situations.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

The Use of Sports Psychology for the Mental Recovery of Athletes Post-Injury

Description

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed to uncover different features of an athletic injury as well as possible intervention methods. Findings suggested that effective intervention techniques structured around the Self Determination Theory (SDT), more specifically the concept of strengthening the satisfaction of an individual's three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness. Following the collection of past research, a series of interviews were conducted with four practicing sports psychologists. Interview questions focused on determining possible distinctions between acute, chronic and career-ending injuries as well as intervention techniques employed. Utilizing data collected from past research as well as the interviews, an applied brochure was developed for the potential benefit of an injured athlete. The established techniques, if utilized properly, should strengthen the satisfaction of an athlete's psychological needs according to the SDT, which may ultimately foster a positive and successful return-to-sport experience.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Proteomic Profile of Chronic Stress and Recovery in the Hippocampus

Description

The stress response facilitates our ability to deal effectively with threatening situations, but exposure to severe or chronic stressors can lead to undesirable neural, physiological, and behavioral outcomes. Chronic stress

The stress response facilitates our ability to deal effectively with threatening situations, but exposure to severe or chronic stressors can lead to undesirable neural, physiological, and behavioral outcomes. Chronic stress is associated with structural changes in the rat hippocampus, with corresponding deficits in learning and memory. Recent studies have uncovered an inherent neuroplasticity that allows the hippocampus to recover from these stress-induced neural changes. Underlying mechanisms likely involve several different cellular and molecular pathways. In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of these pathways, we investigated differences in protein expression throughout the timeline of chronic stress and recovery. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to chronic restraint stress for 6hr/d/10d or 6hr/d/21d, stress for 6hr/d/21d followed by a recovery period of no stress for 10 or 21 days, or a control group. The proteome from the hippocampus of these rats was sequenced using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and analyzed. We hypothesized that chronic stress alters interneuronal signaling in the hippocampus by enhancing or attenuating the expression of proteins responsible for synaptic plasticity (functional) and neuronal structure (morphology). So far we have found that structural proteins, such as alpha-internexin, homer protein homolog 3, neurofilament light, and vimentin were significantly altered by chronic stress and recovery. In contrast, proteins necessary for or associated with myelination such as 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein, myelin basic protein S, and myelin proteolipid protein were significantly downregulated by chronic stress. Collectively, these results will provide a resource for further investigations into the mechanisms of the brain's recovery from chronic stress.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

The Use of Sports Psychology for the Mental Recovery of Athletes Post-Injury

Description

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed to uncover different features of an athletic injury as well as possible intervention methods. Findings suggested that effective intervention techniques structured around the Self Determination Theory (SDT), more specifically the concept of strengthening the satisfaction of an individual's three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness. Following the collection of past research, a series of interviews were conducted with four practicing sports psychologists. Interview questions focused on determining possible distinctions between acute, chronic and career-ending injuries as well as intervention techniques employed. Utilizing data collected from past research as well as the interviews, an applied brochure was developed for the potential benefit of an injured athlete. The established techniques, if utilized properly, should strengthen the satisfaction of an athlete's psychological needs according to the SDT, which may ultimately foster a positive and successful return-to-sport experience.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Mechanisms of recovery from chronic stress

Description

Chronic stress results in functional and structural changes to the hippocampus. Decades of research has led to insights into the mechanisms underlying the chronic stress-induced deficits in hippocampal-mediated cognition and

Chronic stress results in functional and structural changes to the hippocampus. Decades of research has led to insights into the mechanisms underlying the chronic stress-induced deficits in hippocampal-mediated cognition and reduction of dendritic complexity of hippocampal neurons. Recently, a considerable focus of chronic stress research has investigated the mechanisms behind the improvements in hippocampal mediated cognition when chronic stress ends and a post-stress rest period is given. Consequently, the goal of this dissertation is to uncover the mechanisms that allow for spatial ability to improve in the aftermath of chronic stress. In chapter 2, the protein brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated as a mechanism that allows for spatial ability to show improvements following the end of chronic stress. It was found that decreasing the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus prevented spatial memory improvements following a post-stress rest period. Chapter 3 was performed to determine whether hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic complexity requires BDNF to show improvements following a post-stress rest period, and whether a receptor for BDNF, TrkB, mediates the improvements of spatial ability and dendritic complexity in a temporal manner, i.e. during the rest period only. These experiments showed that decreased hippocampal BDNF expression prevented improvements in dendritic complexity, and administration of a TrkB antagonist during the rest period also prevented the improvements in spatial ability and dendritic complexity. In chapter 4, the role of the GABAergic system on spatial ability following chronic stress and a post-stress rest period was investigated. Following chronic stress, it was found that male rats showed impairments on the acquisition phase of the RAWM and this correlated with limbic glutamic acid decarboxylase, a marker for GABA. In chapter 5, a transgenic mouse that expresses a permanent marker on all GABAergic interneurons was used to assess the effects of chronic stress and a post-stress rest period on hippocampal GABAergic neurons. While no changes were found on the total number of GABAergic interneurons, specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons were affected by stressor manipulations. Collectively, these studies reveal some mechanisms behind the plasticity seen in the hippocampus in response to a post-stress rest period.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Recovering addiction: a critique of intoxicant governance in the United States

Description

This dissertation explores the historical development and contemporary deployment of discursive practices that constitute the “truth” of addiction, which in turn serve as the bases for interventions into the lives

This dissertation explores the historical development and contemporary deployment of discursive practices that constitute the “truth” of addiction, which in turn serve as the bases for interventions into the lives of people who use intoxicants for any number of reasons. A number of interrelated research questions structure this governmentality analysis. First, what is the evolution of the governmental frames developed and deployed to understand, discipline, and recover addiction in the arena of alcohol and illicit drug use in United States? Second, how does twelve-step serve to transform unruly addicts into self-disciplining citizens? Finally, how does The Meth Project (TMP) exemplify and/or diverge from the dominant addiction governmental frames developed during the Temperance and Progressive eras in the United States? My overall goal is to destabilize our ready understanding of addiction and demonstrate that it is as much a tool of social needs as it is a mental illness by demonstrating: 1) the historically contingent nature of our understandings of addiction and addicts; 2) how these historically contingent understandings are actualized as technologies geared toward “recovering” unruly subjects; and 3) how these historically contingent understandings are taken up as “epistemological scripts” used to conceptualize the “true nature” of certain types of drugs and drug users while simultaneously supporting various regimes of discipline and punishment for those determined to remain “unruly subjects.”

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Hippocampal BDNF mediates recovery from chronic stress-induced spatial reference memory deficits

Description

Chronic restraint stress impairs hippocampal-mediated spatial learning and memory, which improves following a post-stress recovery period. Here, we investigated whether brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein important for hippocampal

Chronic restraint stress impairs hippocampal-mediated spatial learning and memory, which improves following a post-stress recovery period. Here, we investigated whether brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein important for hippocampal function, would alter the recovery from chronic stress-induced spatial memory deficits. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused into the hippocampus with adeno- associated viral vectors containing the coding sequence for short interfering (si)RNA directed against BDNF or a scrambled sequence (Scr), with both containing the coding information for green fluorescent protein to aid in anatomical localization. Rats were then chronically restrained (wire mesh, 6h/d/21d) and assessed for spatial learning and memory using a radial arm water maze (RAWM) either immediately after stressor cessation (Str-Imm) or following a 21-day post-stress recovery period (Str-Rec). All groups learned the RAWM task similarly, but differed on the memory retention trial. Rats in the Str-Imm group, regardless of viral vector contents, committed more errors in the spatial reference memory domain than did non-stressed controls. Importantly, the typical improvement in spatial memory following recovery from chronic stress was blocked with the siRNA against BDNF, as Str-Rec-siRNA performed worse on the RAWM compared to the non-stressed controls or Str-Rec-Scr. These effects were specific for the reference memory domain as repeated entry errors that reflect spatial working memory were unaffected by stress condition or viral vector contents. These results demonstrate that hippocampal BDNF is necessary for the recovery from stress-induced hippocampal dependent spatial memory deficits in the reference memory domain.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Leaders' daily work demands, recovery, and leadership behaviors

Description

In my dissertation, I develop a theoretical model that explains how leaders' daily work demands and recovery affect their leadership behaviors. In a departure from the trait approach of leadershi

In my dissertation, I develop a theoretical model that explains how leaders' daily work demands and recovery affect their leadership behaviors. In a departure from the trait approach of leadership which suggests that leaders tend to behave in certain ways that are determined by their heritable characteristics such as personality and intelligence (e.g., Bono & Judge, 2002), and from the contingency approach that suggests leaders behave in ways that are most suitable to the situation based on the needs of followers and the demands of their tasks (e.g., House, 1971), this dissertation draws from the transactional theory of stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and positions the stressful demands that leaders experience at work as important determinants of their leadership behaviors. Specifically, I propose that leaders' daily challenge demands (e.g., workload, time pressure, responsibilities) are positively related to job engagement whereas their daily hindrance demands (e.g., role ambiguity, office politics, and hassles) are negatively related to engagement. Engagement, in turn, is positively related to transformational and transactional leadership and negatively related to laissez-faire leadership and abusive supervision. Meanwhile, both challenge and hindrance demands are positively related to strain, which is negatively related to transformational and transactional leadership, and is positively related to laissez-faire leadership and abusive supervision. In addition, leaders' daily after-work recovery experience influences the mediating roles of engagement and strain in the relationships between work demands and leadership behaviors. Specifically, daily recovery moderates both the first stage (i.e., the linkages between work demands and engagement and strain) and the second stage (i.e., the linkages between engagement and strain and leadership behaviors) of the mediation. I test this two-level dual-stage moderated mediation model using a two-week experience sampling design. The sample consists of 26 supervisors and 73 employees who directly report to these supervisors from the flood control district of a metropolitan county in the Southwest United States. Results suggest that leaders' daily challenge demands have a positive influence on transformational leadership attributable to engagement, a negative influence on abusive supervision attributable to engagement, and a positive influence on abusive supervision attributable to strain. Leaders' daily hindrance demands, in contrast, have a positive influence on abusive supervision attributable to strain. In addition, leaders' daily recovery moderates the relationship between strain and laissez-faire leadership so that hindrance demands have a positive influence on laissez-faire leadership when the individual is poorly recovered. Leaders' daily recovery also moderates the relationship between strain and abusive supervision so that hindrance demands have a stronger positive influence on abusive supervision through strain when the individual is poorly recovered.

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Date Created
  • 2013