Matching Items (17)

134706-Thumbnail Image.png

Open-Source Feature Selection Tool for Medical Imaging Diagnosis

Description

Open source image analytics and data mining software are widely available but can be overly-complicated and non-intuitive for medical physicians and researchers to use. The ASU-Mayo Clinic Imaging Informatics Lab

Open source image analytics and data mining software are widely available but can be overly-complicated and non-intuitive for medical physicians and researchers to use. The ASU-Mayo Clinic Imaging Informatics Lab has developed an in-house pipeline to process medical images, extract imaging features, and develop multi-parametric models to assist disease staging and diagnosis. The tools have been extensively used in a number of medical studies including brain tumor, breast cancer, liver cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and migraine. Recognizing the need from users in the medical field for a simplified interface and streamlined functionalities, this project aims to democratize this pipeline so that it is more readily available to health practitioners and third party developers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

135475-Thumbnail Image.png

A Non-Parametric Semi-Supervised f-Divergence

Description

Divergence functions are both highly useful and fundamental to many areas in information theory and machine learning, but require either parametric approaches or prior knowledge of labels on the full

Divergence functions are both highly useful and fundamental to many areas in information theory and machine learning, but require either parametric approaches or prior knowledge of labels on the full data set. This paper presents a method to estimate the divergence between two data sets in the absence of fully labeled data. This semi-labeled case is common in many domains where labeling data by hand is expensive or time-consuming, or wherever large data sets are present. The theory derived in this paper is demonstrated on a simulated example, and then applied to a feature selection and classification problem from pathological speech analysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

158093-Thumbnail Image.png

Embedded Feature Selection for Model-based Clustering

Description

Model-based clustering is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. The mixture models use the probability to describe the degree of the data point belonging to the cluster, and

Model-based clustering is a sub-field of statistical modeling and machine learning. The mixture models use the probability to describe the degree of the data point belonging to the cluster, and the probability is updated iteratively during the clustering. While mixture models have demonstrated the superior performance in handling noisy data in many fields, there exist some challenges for high dimensional dataset. It is noted that among a large number of features, some may not indeed contribute to delineate the cluster profiles. The inclusion of these “noisy” features will confuse the model to identify the real structure of the clusters and cost more computational time. Recognizing the issue, in this dissertation, I propose a new feature selection algorithm for continuous dataset first and then extend to mixed datatype. Finally, I conduct uncertainty quantification for the feature selection results as the third topic.

The first topic is an embedded feature selection algorithm termed Expectation-Selection-Maximization (ESM) model that can automatically select features while optimizing the parameters for Gaussian Mixture Model. I introduce a relevancy index (RI) revealing the contribution of the feature in the clustering process to assist feature selection. I demonstrate the efficacy of the ESM by studying two synthetic datasets, four benchmark datasets, and an Alzheimer’s Disease dataset.

The second topic focuses on extending the application of ESM algorithm to handle mixed datatypes. The Gaussian mixture model is generalized to Generalized Model of Mixture (GMoM), which can not only handle continuous features, but also binary and nominal features.

The last topic is about Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) of the feature selection. A new algorithm termed ESOM is proposed, which takes the variance information into consideration while conducting feature selection. Also, a set of outliers are generated in the feature selection process to infer the uncertainty in the input data. Finally, the selected features and detected outlier instances are evaluated by visualization comparison.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

155473-Thumbnail Image.png

Algorithms for neural prosthetic applications

Description

In the last 15 years, there has been a significant increase in the number of motor neural prostheses used for restoring limb function lost due to neurological disorders or accidents.

In the last 15 years, there has been a significant increase in the number of motor neural prostheses used for restoring limb function lost due to neurological disorders or accidents. The aim of this technology is to enable patients to control a motor prosthesis using their residual neural pathways (central or peripheral). Recent studies in non-human primates and humans have shown the possibility of controlling a prosthesis for accomplishing varied tasks such as self-feeding, typing, reaching, grasping, and performing fine dexterous movements. A neural decoding system comprises mainly of three components: (i) sensors to record neural signals, (ii) an algorithm to map neural recordings to upper limb kinematics and (iii) a prosthetic arm actuated by control signals generated by the algorithm. Machine learning algorithms that map input neural activity to the output kinematics (like finger trajectory) form the core of the neural decoding system. The choice of the algorithm is thus, mainly imposed by the neural signal of interest and the output parameter being decoded. The various parts of a neural decoding system are neural data, feature extraction, feature selection, and machine learning algorithm. There have been significant advances in the field of neural prosthetic applications. But there are challenges for translating a neural prosthesis from a laboratory setting to a clinical environment. To achieve a fully functional prosthetic device with maximum user compliance and acceptance, these factors need to be addressed and taken into consideration. Three challenges in developing robust neural decoding systems were addressed by exploring neural variability in the peripheral nervous system for dexterous finger movements, feature selection methods based on clinically relevant metrics and a novel method for decoding dexterous finger movements based on ensemble methods.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

155191-Thumbnail Image.png

Big data analysis of bacterial inhibitors in parallelized cellomics: a machine learning approach

Description

Identifying chemical compounds that inhibit bacterial infection has recently gained a considerable amount of attention given the increased number of highly resistant bacteria and the serious health threat it poses

Identifying chemical compounds that inhibit bacterial infection has recently gained a considerable amount of attention given the increased number of highly resistant bacteria and the serious health threat it poses around the world. With the development of automated microscopy and image analysis systems, the process of identifying novel therapeutic drugs can generate an immense amount of data - easily reaching terabytes worth of information. Despite increasing the vast amount of data that is currently generated, traditional analytical methods have not increased the overall success rate of identifying active chemical compounds that eventually become novel therapeutic drugs. Moreover, multispectral imaging has become ubiquitous in drug discovery due to its ability to provide valuable information on cellular and sub-cellular processes using florescent reagents. These reagents are often costly and toxic to cells over an extended period of time causing limitations in experimental design. Thus, there is a significant need to develop a more efficient process of identifying active chemical compounds.

This dissertation introduces novel machine learning methods based on parallelized cellomics to analyze interactions between cells, bacteria, and chemical compounds while reducing the use of fluorescent reagents. Machine learning analysis using image-based high-content screening (HCS) data is compartmentalized into three primary components: (1) \textit{Image Analytics}, (2) \textit{Phenotypic Analytics}, and (3) \textit{Compound Analytics}. A novel software analytics tool called the Insights project is also introduced. The Insights project fully incorporates distributed processing, high performance computing, and database management that can rapidly and effectively utilize and store massive amounts of data generated using HCS biological assessments (bioassays). It is ideally suited for parallelized cellomics in high dimensional space.

Results demonstrate that a parallelized cellomics approach increases the quality of a bioassay while vastly decreasing the need for control data. The reduction in control data leads to less fluorescent reagent consumption. Furthermore, a novel proposed method that uses single-cell data points is proven to identify known active chemical compounds with a high degree of accuracy, despite traditional quality control measurements indicating the bioassay to be of poor quality. This, ultimately, decreases the time and resources needed in optimizing bioassays while still accurately identifying active compounds.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

151587-Thumbnail Image.png

On feature selection stability: a data perspective

Description

The rapid growth in the high-throughput technologies last few decades makes the manual processing of the generated data to be impracticable. Even worse, the machine learning and data mining techniques

The rapid growth in the high-throughput technologies last few decades makes the manual processing of the generated data to be impracticable. Even worse, the machine learning and data mining techniques seemed to be paralyzed against these massive datasets. High-dimensionality is one of the most common challenges for machine learning and data mining tasks. Feature selection aims to reduce dimensionality by selecting a small subset of the features that perform at least as good as the full feature set. Generally, the learning performance, e.g. classification accuracy, and algorithm complexity are used to measure the quality of the algorithm. Recently, the stability of feature selection algorithms has gained an increasing attention as a new indicator due to the necessity to select similar subsets of features each time when the algorithm is run on the same dataset even in the presence of a small amount of perturbation. In order to cure the selection stability issue, we should understand the cause of instability first. In this dissertation, we will investigate the causes of instability in high-dimensional datasets using well-known feature selection algorithms. As a result, we found that the stability mostly data-dependent. According to these findings, we propose a framework to improve selection stability by solving these main causes. In particular, we found that data noise greatly impacts the stability and the learning performance as well. So, we proposed to reduce it in order to improve both selection stability and learning performance. However, current noise reduction approaches are not able to distinguish between data noise and variation in samples from different classes. For this reason, we overcome this limitation by using Supervised noise reduction via Low Rank Matrix Approximation, SLRMA for short. The proposed framework has proved to be successful on different types of datasets with high-dimensionality, such as microarrays and images datasets. However, this framework cannot handle unlabeled, hence, we propose Local SVD to overcome this limitation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

155252-Thumbnail Image.png

Mining signed social networks using unsupervised learning algorithms

Description

Due to vast resources brought by social media services, social data mining has

received increasing attention in recent years. The availability of sheer amounts of

user-generated data presents data scientists both opportunities

Due to vast resources brought by social media services, social data mining has

received increasing attention in recent years. The availability of sheer amounts of

user-generated data presents data scientists both opportunities and challenges. Opportunities are presented with additional data sources. The abundant link information

in social networks could provide another rich source in deriving implicit information

for social data mining. However, the vast majority of existing studies overwhelmingly

focus on positive links between users while negative links are also prevailing in real-

world social networks such as distrust relations in Epinions and foe links in Slashdot.

Though recent studies show that negative links have some added value over positive

links, it is dicult to directly employ them because of its distinct characteristics from

positive interactions. Another challenge is that label information is rather limited

in social media as the labeling process requires human attention and may be very

expensive. Hence, alternative criteria are needed to guide the learning process for

many tasks such as feature selection and sentiment analysis.

To address above-mentioned issues, I study two novel problems for signed social

networks mining, (1) unsupervised feature selection in signed social networks; and

(2) unsupervised sentiment analysis with signed social networks. To tackle the first problem, I propose a novel unsupervised feature selection framework SignedFS. In

particular, I model positive and negative links simultaneously for user preference

learning, and then embed the user preference learning into feature selection. To study the second problem, I incorporate explicit sentiment signals in textual terms and

implicit sentiment signals from signed social networks into a coherent model Signed-

Senti. Empirical experiments on real-world datasets corroborate the effectiveness of

these two frameworks on the tasks of feature selection and sentiment analysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

153085-Thumbnail Image.png

Simultaneous variable and feature group selection in heterogeneous learning: optimization and applications

Description

Advances in data collection technologies have made it cost-effective to obtain heterogeneous data from multiple data sources. Very often, the data are of very high dimension and feature selection is

Advances in data collection technologies have made it cost-effective to obtain heterogeneous data from multiple data sources. Very often, the data are of very high dimension and feature selection is preferred in order to reduce noise, save computational cost and learn interpretable models. Due to the multi-modality nature of heterogeneous data, it is interesting to design efficient machine learning models that are capable of performing variable selection and feature group (data source) selection simultaneously (a.k.a bi-level selection). In this thesis, I carry out research along this direction with a particular focus on designing efficient optimization algorithms. I start with a unified bi-level learning model that contains several existing feature selection models as special cases. Then the proposed model is further extended to tackle the block-wise missing data, one of the major challenges in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Moreover, I propose a novel interpretable sparse group feature selection model that greatly facilitates the procedure of parameter tuning and model selection. Last but not least, I show that by solving the sparse group hard thresholding problem directly, the sparse group feature selection model can be further improved in terms of both algorithmic complexity and efficiency. Promising results are demonstrated in the extensive evaluation on multiple real-world data sets.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

155725-Thumbnail Image.png

Novel methods of biomarker discovery and predictive modeling using Random Forest

Description

Random forest (RF) is a popular and powerful technique nowadays. It can be used for classification, regression and unsupervised clustering. In its original form introduced by Leo Breiman, RF is

Random forest (RF) is a popular and powerful technique nowadays. It can be used for classification, regression and unsupervised clustering. In its original form introduced by Leo Breiman, RF is used as a predictive model to generate predictions for new observations. Recent researches have proposed several methods based on RF for feature selection and for generating prediction intervals. However, they are limited in their applicability and accuracy. In this dissertation, RF is applied to build a predictive model for a complex dataset, and used as the basis for two novel methods for biomarker discovery and generating prediction interval.

Firstly, a biodosimetry is developed using RF to determine absorbed radiation dose from gene expression measured from blood samples of potentially exposed individuals. To improve the prediction accuracy of the biodosimetry, day-specific models were built to deal with day interaction effect and a technique of nested modeling was proposed. The nested models can fit this complex data of large variability and non-linear relationships.

Secondly, a panel of biomarkers was selected using a data-driven feature selection method as well as handpick, considering prior knowledge and other constraints. To incorporate domain knowledge, a method called Know-GRRF was developed based on guided regularized RF. This method can incorporate domain knowledge as a penalized term to regulate selection of candidate features in RF. It adds more flexibility to data-driven feature selection and can improve the interpretability of models. Know-GRRF showed significant improvement in cross-species prediction when cross-species correlation was used to guide selection of biomarkers. The method can also compete with existing methods using intrinsic data characteristics as alternative of domain knowledge in simulated datasets.

Lastly, a novel non-parametric method, RFerr, was developed to generate prediction interval using RF regression. This method is widely applicable to any predictive models and was shown to have better coverage and precision than existing methods on the real-world radiation dataset, as well as benchmark and simulated datasets.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

157589-Thumbnail Image.png

Learning with attributed networks: algorithms and applications

Description

Attributes - that delineating the properties of data, and connections - that describing the dependencies of data, are two essential components to characterize most real-world phenomena. The synergy between these

Attributes - that delineating the properties of data, and connections - that describing the dependencies of data, are two essential components to characterize most real-world phenomena. The synergy between these two principal elements renders a unique data representation - the attributed networks. In many cases, people are inundated with vast amounts of data that can be structured into attributed networks, and their use has been attractive to researchers and practitioners in different disciplines. For example, in social media, users interact with each other and also post personalized content; in scientific collaboration, researchers cooperate and are distinct from peers by their unique research interests; in complex diseases studies, rich gene expression complements to the gene-regulatory networks. Clearly, attributed networks are ubiquitous and form a critical component of modern information infrastructure. To gain deep insights from such networks, it requires a fundamental understanding of their unique characteristics and be aware of the related computational challenges.

My dissertation research aims to develop a suite of novel learning algorithms to understand, characterize, and gain actionable insights from attributed networks, to benefit high-impact real-world applications. In the first part of this dissertation, I mainly focus on developing learning algorithms for attributed networks in a static environment at two different levels: (i) attribute level - by designing feature selection algorithms to find high-quality features that are tightly correlated with the network topology; and (ii) node level - by presenting network embedding algorithms to learn discriminative node embeddings by preserving node proximity w.r.t. network topology structure and node attribute similarity. As changes are essential components of attributed networks and the results of learning algorithms will become stale over time, in the second part of this dissertation, I propose a family of online algorithms for attributed networks in a dynamic environment to continuously update the learning results on the fly. In fact, developing application-aware learning algorithms is more desired with a clear understanding of the application domains and their unique intents. As such, in the third part of this dissertation, I am also committed to advancing real-world applications on attributed networks by incorporating the objectives of external tasks into the learning process.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019