Matching Items (4)
- All Subjects: Bexarotene
- All Subjects: Contaminant exposure sampling
- Creators: Marshall, Pamela
- Creators: Yang, Joanna
- Status: Published
Bexarotene is a commercially produced drug commonly known as Targetin presecribed to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Bex mimics the actions of natural 9-cis retinoic acid in the body, which are derived from Vitamin A in the diet and boost the immune system. Bex has been shown to be effective in the treatment of multiple types of cancer, including lung cancer. However, the disadvantages of using Bex include increased instances of hypothyroidism and excessive concentrations of blood triglycerides. If an analog of Bex can be developed which retains high affinity RXR binding similar to the 9-cis retinoic acid while exhibiting less interference for heterodimerization pathways, it would be of great clinical significance in improving the quality of life for patients with CTCL. This thesis will detail the biological profiling of additional novel (Generation Two) analogs, which are currently in submission for publication, as well as that of Generation Three analogs. The results from these studies reveal that specific alterations in the core structure of the Bex "parent" compound structure can have dramatic effects in modifying the biological activity of RXR agonists.
Bexarotene (Targretin®) is an FDA approved drug used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as well as off-label treatments for various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous research has indicated that bexarotene has a specific affinity for retinoid X receptors (RXR), which allows bexarotene to act as a ligand-activated-transcription factor and in return control cell differentiation and proliferation. Bexarotene targets RXR homodimerization to drive transcription of tumor suppressing genes; however, adverse reactions occur simultaneously when bound to other nuclear receptors. In this study, we used novel bexarotene analogs throughout 5 iterations synthesized in the laboratory of Dr. Wagner to test for their potency and ability to bind RXR. The aim of our study is to quantitatively measure RXR homodimerization driven by bexarotene analogs using a yeast two-hybrid system. Our results suggests there to be several compounds with higher protein activity than bexarotene, particularly in generations 3.0 and 5.0. This higher affinity for RXR homodimers may help scientists identify a compound that will minimize adverse effects and toxicity of bexarotene and serve as a better cancer treatment alternative.
Silicone wristbands consist of a porous surface with the potential to sequester organic contaminants in the environment. Their properties allow for them to be used as a novel sampling approach to assessing personal human exposure to environmental contaminants. The purpose of the study was to understand the effectiveness of silicone wristbands as sampling devices. This was addressed by identifying and quantifying pesticide recovery from exposed wristbands. Triplicate groups of wristbands were dosed with 37 persistent organochlorine or organophosphate pesticides and then extracted to estimate human exposure through recovery. Results suggest that silicone wristbands have the potential to absorb a number of pesticides and organic contaminants, although at varying rates and quantities. As more uptake and sequestration rates can be established, wristbands have the potential to serve as indicators of human exposure to a variety of pesticides and other chemical groups at trace amounts.
Bexarotene is a Food and Drug administration (FDA)-approved therapeutic used in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, bexarotene therapy causes significant side effects like hyperlipidemia and hypothyroidism due to crossover activity with retinoic acid receptor (RAR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), and liver X receptor (LXR) signaling, respectively. More recently bexarotene has shown promise to reverse neurodegeneration, improve cognition and decrease levels of amyloid- β in transgenic mice expressing familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mutations. Bexarotene is a high affinity ligand for the retinoid X receptor (RXR) that heterodimerizes with the liver- X- receptors (LXR) and with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARϒ) to control cholesterol efflux, inflammation, and transcriptionally upregulates the production of apolipoprotein (ApoE) in the brain. Enhanced ApoE expression may promote clearance of soluble Aβ peptides from the brain and reduce Aβ plaques, thus resolving both amyloid pathology and cognitive deficits. The present study assessed the potential of bexarotene and a group of 62 novel rexinoids to bind and activate RXR using a series of biological assays and screening methods, including: 1) a mammalian two-hybrid system (M2H) and an 2) Retinoid X Receptor response element (RXRE)-mediated reporter assays in cultured human cells. Moreover, Liver X Receptor response element (LXRE)-mediated luciferase assays were performed to analyze the ability of the novel analogs to activate LXRE - directed transcription, and to induce ApoE messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in U87 glial cells. Furthermore, the most potent analogs were analyzed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine efficacy in modulating expression of two critical tumor suppressor genes, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). Results from these multiple assays indicate that the panel of RXR ligands contains compounds with a range of activities, with some analogs capable of binding to RXR with higher affinity than others, and in some cases upregulating ApoE expression to a greater extent than bexarotene. The data suggests that minor modifications to the bexarotene core chemical structure may yield novel analogs possessing an equal or greater capacity to activate RXR and may be useful as therapeutic agents against CTCL and Alzheimer’s disease.