Matching Items (7)

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The Rhythm of Running: An Analysis of Preferred Running Tempo

Description

The action of running is difficult to measure, but well worth it to receive valuable information about one of our most basic evolutionary functions. In the context of modern day,

The action of running is difficult to measure, but well worth it to receive valuable information about one of our most basic evolutionary functions. In the context of modern day, recreational runners typically listen to music while running, and so the purpose of this experiment is to analyze the influence of music on running from a more dynamical approach. The first experiment was a running task involving running without a metronome and running with one while setting one's own preferred running tempo. The second experiment sought to manipulate the participant's preferred running tempo by having them listen to the metronome set at their preferred tempo, 20% above their preferred tempo, or 20% below. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether or not rhythmic perturbations different to one's preferred running tempo would interfere with one's preferred running tempo and cause a change in the variability of one's running patterns as well as a change in one's running performance along the measures of step rate, stride length, and stride pace. The evidence suggests that participants naturally entrained to the metronome tempo which influenced them to run faster or slower as a function of metronome tempo. However, this change was also accompanied by a shift in the variability of one's step rate and stride length.

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  • 2017-05

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Addressment of uncertainty and variability in attributional environmental life cycle assessment

Description

'Attributional' Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) quantitatively tracks the potential environmental impacts of international value chains, in retrospective, while ensuring that burden shifting is avoided. Despite the growing popularity of LCA

'Attributional' Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) quantitatively tracks the potential environmental impacts of international value chains, in retrospective, while ensuring that burden shifting is avoided. Despite the growing popularity of LCA as a decision-support tool, there are numerous concerns relating to uncertainty and variability in LCA that affects its reliability and credibility. It is pertinent that some part of future research in LCA be guided towards increasing reliability and credibility for decision-making, while utilizing the LCA framework established by ISO 14040.

In this dissertation, I have synthesized the present state of knowledge and application of uncertainty and variability in ‘attributional’ LCA, and contribute to its quantitative assessment.

Firstly, the present state of addressment of uncertainty and variability in LCA is consolidated and reviewed. It is evident that sources of uncertainty and variability exist in the following areas: ISO standards, supplementary guides, software tools, life cycle inventory (LCI) databases, all four methodological phases of LCA, and use of LCA information. One source of uncertainty and variability, each, is identified, selected, quantified, and its implications discussed.

The use of surrogate LCI data in lieu of missing dataset(s) or data-gaps is a source of uncertainty. Despite the widespread use of surrogate data, there has been no effort to (1) establish any form of guidance for the appropriate selection of surrogate data and, (2) estimate the uncertainty associated with the choice and use of surrogate data. A formal expert elicitation-based methodology to select the most appropriate surrogates and to quantify the associated uncertainty was proposed and implemented.

Product-evolution in a non-uniform manner is a source of temporal variability that is presently not considered in LCA modeling. The resulting use of outdated LCA information will lead to misguided decisions affecting the issue at concern and eventually the environment. In order to demonstrate product-evolution within the scope of ISO 14044, and given that variability cannot be reduced, the sources of product-evolution were identified, generalized, analyzed and their implications (individual and coupled) on LCA results are quantified.

Finally, recommendations were provided for the advancement of robustness of 'attributional' LCA, with respect to uncertainty and variability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Case study on the dynamic response of long bridges subject to spatially varying ground motions

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This report analyzed the dynamic response of a long, linear elastic concrete bridge subject to spatially varying ground displacements as well as consistent ground displacements. Specifically, the study investigated the

This report analyzed the dynamic response of a long, linear elastic concrete bridge subject to spatially varying ground displacements as well as consistent ground displacements. Specifically, the study investigated the bridge’s response to consistent ground displacements at all supports (U-NW), ground displacements with wave passage effects and no soil profile variability (U-WP), and ground displacements with both wave passage effects and soil profile variability (V-WP). Time-history ground displacements were taken from recordings of the Loma Prieta, Duzce, and Chuetsu earthquakes. The two horizontal components of each earthquake time-history displacement record were applied to the bridge supports in the transverse and longitudinal directions. It was found that considering wave passage effects without soil profile variability, as compared with consistent ground displacements, significantly reduced the peak total energy of the system, as well as decreasing the maximum relative longitudinal displacements. The maximum relative transverse displacements were not significantly changed in the same case. It was also found that including both wave passage effects and soil profile variability (V-WP) generally resulted in larger maximum transverse relative displacements, across all earthquake time-histories tested. Similarly, it was found that using consistent ground displacements (U-NW) generally resulted in larger maximum longitudinal relative displacements, as well as larger peak total energy values.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Techniques to Assess Balance and Mobility in Lower-Limb Prosthesis Users

Description

Lower-limb prosthesis users have commonly-recognized deficits in gait and posture control. However, existing methods in balance and mobility analysis fail to provide sufficient sensitivity to detect changes in prosthesis users'

Lower-limb prosthesis users have commonly-recognized deficits in gait and posture control. However, existing methods in balance and mobility analysis fail to provide sufficient sensitivity to detect changes in prosthesis users' postural control and mobility in response to clinical intervention or experimental manipulations and often fail to detect differences between prosthesis users and non-amputee control subjects. This lack of sensitivity limits the ability of clinicians to make informed clinical decisions and presents challenges with insurance reimbursement for comprehensive clinical care and advanced prosthetic devices. These issues have directly impacted clinical care by restricting device options, increasing financial burden on clinics, and limiting support for research and development. This work aims to establish experimental methods and outcome measures that are more sensitive than traditional methods to balance and mobility changes in prosthesis users. Methods and analysis techniques were developed to probe aspects of balance and mobility control that may be specifically impacted by use of a prosthesis and present challenges similar to those experienced in daily life that could improve the detection of balance and mobility changes. Using the framework of cognitive resource allocation and dual-tasking, this work identified unique characteristics of prosthesis users’ postural control and developed sensitive measures of gait variability. The results also provide broader insight into dual-task analysis and the motor-cognitive response to demanding conditions. Specifically, this work identified altered motor behavior in prosthesis users and high cognitive demand of using a prosthesis. The residual standard deviation method was developed and demonstrated to be more effective than traditional gait variability measures at detecting the impact of dual-tasking. Additionally, spectral analysis of the center of pressure while standing identified altered somatosensory control in prosthesis users. These findings provide a new understanding of prosthetic use and new, highly sensitive techniques to assess balance and mobility in prosthesis users.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Influence of sensorimotor noise on the planning and control of reaching in 3-dimensional space

Description

The ability to plan, execute, and control goal oriented reaching and grasping movements is among the most essential functions of the brain. Yet, these movements are inherently variable; a result

The ability to plan, execute, and control goal oriented reaching and grasping movements is among the most essential functions of the brain. Yet, these movements are inherently variable; a result of the noise pervading the neural signals underlying sensorimotor processing. The specific influences and interactions of these noise processes remain unclear. Thus several studies have been performed to elucidate the role and influence of sensorimotor noise on movement variability. The first study focuses on sensory integration and movement planning across the reaching workspace. An experiment was designed to examine the relative contributions of vision and proprioception to movement planning by measuring the rotation of the initial movement direction induced by a perturbation of the visual feedback prior to movement onset. The results suggest that contribution of vision was relatively consistent across the evaluated workspace depths; however, the influence of vision differed between the vertical and later axes indicate that additional factors beyond vision and proprioception influence movement planning of 3-dimensional movements. If the first study investigated the role of noise in sensorimotor integration, the second and third studies investigate relative influence of sensorimotor noise on reaching performance. Specifically, they evaluate how the characteristics of neural processing that underlie movement planning and execution manifest in movement variability during natural reaching. Subjects performed reaching movements with and without visual feedback throughout the movement and the patterns of endpoint variability were compared across movement directions. The results of these studies suggest a primary role of visual feedback noise in shaping patterns of variability and in determining the relative influence of planning and execution related noise sources. The final work considers a computational approach to characterizing how sensorimotor processes interact to shape movement variability. A model of multi-modal feedback control was developed to simulate the interaction of planning and execution noise on reaching variability. The model predictions suggest that anisotropic properties of feedback noise significantly affect the relative influence of planning and execution noise on patterns of reaching variability.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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An analytical approach to efficient circuit variability analysis in scaled CMOS design

Description

Process variations have become increasingly important for scaled technologies starting at 45nm. The increased variations are primarily due to random dopant fluctuations, line-edge roughness and oxide thickness fluctuation. These variations

Process variations have become increasingly important for scaled technologies starting at 45nm. The increased variations are primarily due to random dopant fluctuations, line-edge roughness and oxide thickness fluctuation. These variations greatly impact all aspects of circuit performance and pose a grand challenge to future robust IC design. To improve robustness, efficient methodology is required that considers effect of variations in the design flow. Analyzing timing variability of complex circuits with HSPICE simulations is very time consuming. This thesis proposes an analytical model to predict variability in CMOS circuits that is quick and accurate. There are several analytical models to estimate nominal delay performance but very little work has been done to accurately model delay variability. The proposed model is comprehensive and estimates nominal delay and variability as a function of transistor width, load capacitance and transition time. First, models are developed for library gates and the accuracy of the models is verified with HSPICE simulations for 45nm and 32nm technology nodes. The difference between predicted and simulated σ/μ for the library gates is less than 1%. Next, the accuracy of the model for nominal delay is verified for larger circuits including ISCAS'85 benchmark circuits. The model predicted results are within 4% error of HSPICE simulated results and take a small fraction of the time, for 45nm technology. Delay variability is analyzed for various paths and it is observed that non-critical paths can become critical because of Vth variation. Variability on shortest paths show that rate of hold violations increase enormously with increasing Vth variation.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Modeling and simulation of variations in nano-CMOS design

Description

CMOS technology is expected to enter the 10nm regime for future integrated circuits (IC). Such aggressive scaling leads to vastly increased variability, posing a grand challenge to robust IC design.

CMOS technology is expected to enter the 10nm regime for future integrated circuits (IC). Such aggressive scaling leads to vastly increased variability, posing a grand challenge to robust IC design. Variations in CMOS are often divided into two types: intrinsic variations and process-induced variations. Intrinsic variations are limited by fundamental physics. They are inherent to CMOS structure, considered as one of the ultimate barriers to the continual scaling of CMOS devices. In this work the three primary intrinsic variations sources are studied, including random dopant fluctuation (RDF), line-edge roughness (LER) and oxide thickness fluctuation (OTF). The research is focused on the modeling and simulation of those variations and their scaling trends. Besides the three variations, a time dependent variation source, Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) is also studied. Different from the other three variations, RTN does not contribute much to the total variation amount, but aggregate the worst case of Vth variations in CMOS. In this work a TCAD based simulation study on RTN is presented, and a new SPICE based simulation method for RTN is proposed for time domain circuit analysis. Process-induced variations arise from the imperfection in silicon fabrication, and vary from foundries to foundries. In this work the layout dependent Vth shift due to Rapid-Thermal Annealing (RTA) are investigated. In this work, we develop joint thermal/TCAD simulation and compact modeling tools to analyze performance variability under various layout pattern densities and RTA conditions. Moreover, we propose a suite of compact models that bridge the underlying RTA process with device parameter change for efficient design optimization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011