Matching Items (2)
Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.
Early in the development of American's interest in athletics there has been a conditioning of the mind toward promoting and rewarding male athletes, while ignoring and undercutting female athletes. There is substantial evidence of the existence of monetary and promotional time given to male athletes and very little support given to their female counterparts. The gender pay gap in professional sports is a culmination of gender discrimination within the entire sports realm. It appears to start at the high school level, continue on into the collegiate sector, and is finally magnified in the professional arena. In high school, male sport's programs are given preference to game and practice times, locations, as well as promotions. In college, male athletic programs are advertised and highlighted as being the premier events to go to. This is also seen in college bookstores with the dominating male event merchandise for sale. In the professional arena, the astronomical value of male athletes' salaries, which go into the multi-millions, makes the gender pay gap glaring. These discrepancies between men and women at each level of sport are in part caused by the underlying informal systems or societal norms and values currently present and encouraged in American culture and communities. These informal systems are often countered by formal systems, such as Title IX. Change cannot truly take place until the two systems are aligned. Thankfully, society today seems to be headed in a more equitable direction; therefore, promoting hope and promise for a more equal future between male and female athletes and their programs.