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Intercultural couples' stress: impact of dyadic coping on relationship satisfaction

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Intercultural couples -partners from two different countries- may face increased levels of stress within their relationship (internal stress). Internal stress can negatively impact relationship satisfaction, whereas developing healthy ways to cope (dyadic coping; DC) can lower stress levels and improve

Intercultural couples -partners from two different countries- may face increased levels of stress within their relationship (internal stress). Internal stress can negatively impact relationship satisfaction, whereas developing healthy ways to cope (dyadic coping; DC) can lower stress levels and improve relationship satisfaction (e.g., Bodenmann, 2005). Specifically, it may be important for partners to perceive that their partner as supporting them during times of stress through engaging in DC. This study examined whether intercultural couples experience internal stress and what effects, if any, perceived partner engagement in DC had on their reported relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional data was gathered from 85 couples and was analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs; Kenny & Cook, 1999). Separate APIMs were conducted to examine the association between the independent variables (perceived partner engagement in: positive DC, negative DC, delegated DC, and supportive DC) and the outcome variables of internal stress and relationship satisfaction, while controlling for years each partner lived in their country of birth, average and differences on identification with individualism-collectivism values and behaviors, and if partners did or did not identify as the same race and/or ethnicity. Additionally, APIMs of internal stress on relationship as moderated by perceived partner positive and negative DC were conducted. Results showed significant associations of all independent variables on internal stress and relationship satisfaction. There were no signification interactions between internal stress and DC on relationship satisfaction. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health professionals working with intercultural couples are discussed.

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Date Created
2016

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Predicting undergraduates' intent to persist in STEM: : self-efficacy, role salience and anticipated work-family conflict

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In recent years, women have made significant advances in traditionally male occupations. Despite this progress, women are still underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the model of Achievement Related Choices

In recent years, women have made significant advances in traditionally male occupations. Despite this progress, women are still underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the model of Achievement Related Choices are two widely accepted career development theories. Both theories highlight the importance of self-efficacy and personal factors in career development; yet, neither of them has considered the predictive power of a specific outcome expectation, anticipated work family conflict (AWFC), in relation to the career development of men and women in STEM undergraduate programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the incremental validity of AWFC over and above that of self-efficacy and role salience, in predicting educational and occupational aspirations of undergraduate students in STEM programs at a large southwestern university. The study provides evidence that the factor structure of the AWFC scale does not hold up with the undergraduate population, and this finding was seen as reason to combine the AWFC subscales into one composite score. In a hierarchical multiple regression higher levels of STEM self-efficacy predicted higher intentions to persist in STEM. Role salience, AWFC, and the gender-AWFC interaction were not significantly related to intentions to persist. Although the study does not provide evidence for the incremental validity of AWFC, it does suggest that work-family balance considerations that have been observed in mature STEM populations may not yet be salient for students at the undergraduate level.

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Date Created
2014

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Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

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Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Date Created
2018

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Ethnic Identity as a Moderator for Perceived Access to Healthcare Among LMSM

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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) note that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) face more barriers to accessing health care compared to other men. Such barriers include, lack

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) note that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) face more barriers to accessing health care compared to other men. Such barriers include, lack of cultural- and sexual identity-appropriate medical and support services, concerns about confidentiality, and fear of discussing sexual practices or orientation in a medical setting. In comparison to other MSM populations, Latino MSM (LMSM) report having the least amount of access to health care (McKirnan et al., 2012). The purpose of the present study is to elucidate how individual- (i.e., age, education level, and income level), community- (i.e., social support and neighborhood collective efficacy), and sociocultural-level factors (i.e., immigration status, heterosexual self-presentation, sexual identity commitment, sexual identity exploration, and ethnic identity affirmation and belonging) may relate with perceived access to healthcare. It is hypothesized that ethnic identity affirmation and belonging will moderate relations between the aforementioned predictors and perceived access to health care based on increasing evidence that ethnic identity, or one’s sense of affirmation and belonging to one’s ethnic group, may be a health protective factor. Among a sample of 469 LMSM, this study found that there were several predictors across all three levels (i.e., individual, community, and sociocultural) of perceived access to healthcare. Additionally, data supported evidence that ethnic identity affirmation and belonging (Phinney, 2003) acts as a moderator of other predictors of perceived access to healthcare in this sample. These findings can inform outreach interventions of researchers and healthcare providers about psychosocial and cultural barriers and facilitators of access to healthcare.

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Date Created
2020

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Does Color-blind Racial Ideology Moderate the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth on Psychological Distress among Asian American College Students?

Description

Using a sample of 309 Asian American college students, the present study examined the effects of color-blind racial ideology (i.e., unawareness of blatant racial issues, unawareness of racial privilege and unawareness of institutional racism) on the link between internalization of

Using a sample of 309 Asian American college students, the present study examined the effects of color-blind racial ideology (i.e., unawareness of blatant racial issues, unawareness of racial privilege and unawareness of institutional racism) on the link between internalization of the model minority myth (i.e., unrestricted mobility and achievement orientation) and psychological distress (i.e., social climate stress, interracial stress, within group stress, racism stress and achievement stress). Results primarily suggest the denial of blatant racism and racial issues (and not denial of racial privilege and institutional racism) exacerbate the effect of internalizing the model minority myth related to unrestricted mobility, while it buffers the effect of internalizing the model minority myth related to achievement orientation on race-related social stress. Also, denial of racial privilege appears to buffer the effect of internalizing the model minority myth related to unrestricted mobility and within group stress. Clinical implications and future directions for research are discussed.

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Date Created
2020

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Substance Use Among Mexican Adolescents Moderators of Intervention Efficacy and Risk Profile

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Adolescent substance use is a complex and significant public health concern that has received considerable attention among researchers and practitioners (Gray & Squeglia, 2018). The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with substance use intervention effects and

Adolescent substance use is a complex and significant public health concern that has received considerable attention among researchers and practitioners (Gray & Squeglia, 2018). The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with substance use intervention effects and to develop subgroups of risk factors for Mexican adolescents. This dissertation utilizes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial of the school-based substance use universal prevention program, keepin’ it REAL (kiR). The dissertation included two studies. Study 1: This study tested a model on the efficacy of the school-based substance use universal prevention program, keepin’ it REAL, among a sample of Mexican adolescents (N = 3,742, 11-17 years old). Study 1 analysis included Structural Equation Modeling and results demonstrated that participation in kiR positively predicted alcohol resistance strategies and those alcohol resistance strategies were negatively and significantly associated with alcohol use. Further, depressive symptomology was a moderator of intervention effects as the effects of kiR on resistance strategies increased as the level of depressive symptomology increased. Study 2: this study explored subgroups (classes) of Mexican adolescents (N = 5,520, 11-14 years old) based on their experiences with violence (witnessing, victimization, and perpetration), depressive symptomology, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana). Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) four empirically, well-differentiated classes emerged representing adolescents various risk typologies (Moderate Risk-Violence at 55% of the sample, Low Risk at 35%, High Risk at ~8%; and Moderate Risk-Substance Use at ~2%) Implications for research and practice are discussed across both studies.

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Date Created
2021