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Interpersonal problem type, gender, and outcome in psychotherapy

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This study examined the relationship that gender in interaction with interpersonal problem type has with outcome in psychotherapy. A sample of 200 individuals, who sought psychotherapy at a counselor training facility, completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45(OQ-45) and the reduced version of

This study examined the relationship that gender in interaction with interpersonal problem type has with outcome in psychotherapy. A sample of 200 individuals, who sought psychotherapy at a counselor training facility, completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45(OQ-45) and the reduced version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32). This study was aimed at examining whether gender (male and female), was related to treatment outcome, and whether this relationship was moderated by two interpersonal distress dimensions: dominance and affiliation. A hierarchical regression analyses was performed and indicated that gender did not predict psychotherapy treatment outcome, and neither dominance nor affiliation were moderators of the relationship between gender and outcome in psychotherapy.

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Date Created
2013

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Personal conceptualization and use of mindfulness: developing an emerging model using a grounded theory framework

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An exploratory qualitative study was conducted using a grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006) to examine the subjective experiences of mindfulness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 individuals who practice mindfulness on a regular basis. Data analysis revealed domains related to

An exploratory qualitative study was conducted using a grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006) to examine the subjective experiences of mindfulness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 individuals who practice mindfulness on a regular basis. Data analysis revealed domains related to the experience, conditions, strategies and consequences related to the practice of mindfulness. The following main themes emerged: subjective experience, mechanism of practice, use of metaphors, contextual influences, and shift in perception. An emerging theoretical model related to the experience of mindfulness is also proposed. Implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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Date Created
2013

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A cross-cultural study of body dissatisfaction among Mexican and Mexican-American women

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ABSTRACT

While the cross-cultural literature on body dissatisfaction among Mexican and Mexican-American women has continued to grow, the traditional Latino female gender role of marianismo, sociocultural factors related to ethnic culture and mainstream/American culture ideal perceived discrepancies in body size,

ABSTRACT

While the cross-cultural literature on body dissatisfaction among Mexican and Mexican-American women has continued to grow, the traditional Latino female gender role of marianismo, sociocultural factors related to ethnic culture and mainstream/American culture ideal perceived discrepancies in body size, and one’s romantic relationship have not been explored with this population in relationship to body satisfaction. The current study included 227 female participants predominantly from a large southwestern university in the United States and a large university in northern Mexico. The study examined differences in marianismo and body satisfaction between 120 Mexican and 107 Mexican-American women, investigated the role of marianismo as a mediator between weight-related teasing and body satisfaction, and explored the relationship between marianismo, Partner Ideal Discrepancy, Ethnic Culture Ideal Discrepancy, Mainstream/American Culture Ideal Discrepancy, Perceived Weight-Related Criticism/Teasing, Relationship Support, Relationship Depth, and Relationship Conflict to overall body satisfaction. Results indicated Mexican-American women endorsed less overall body satisfaction than did their Mexican counterparts suggesting that Mexican American women may be more influenced by societal messages about thinness and beauty than are Mexican women. The findings also revealed a possible trend for marianismo as a mediator between weight-related criticism and body satisfaction. Marianismo and weight-related teasing were found to have a negative relationship with body satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Partner Ideal and Mainstream/American Culture Ideal discrepancies accounted for significant variance in body satisfaction. Relationship Conflict accounted for a smaller but still significant amount of the variance in body satisfaction. Ethnic Culture Discrepancy, Relationship Support, and Relationship Depth were not significant predictors. These findings from this study suggest that both cultural variables and romantic relationship variables are related to the body image of Mexican American and Mexican women. These findings have important implications for the adaptation of current etiological models explaining body satisfaction among Mexican and Mexican-American women as well as highlighting the need to consider the role of both cultural and relationship variables in designing clinical interventions for Mexican American and Mexican women coping with body image concerns.

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Date Created
2015

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Going the distance

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Romantic relationships are often viewed as an important, meaningful part of a person's life. Most romantic relationships do not last forever. Research regarding romantic relationship satisfaction and quality have thus grown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether

Romantic relationships are often viewed as an important, meaningful part of a person's life. Most romantic relationships do not last forever. Research regarding romantic relationship satisfaction and quality have thus grown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals who train for endurance events such as running, cycling, or triathlons with their romantic partner have greater relationship satisfaction and quality than do individuals who do not train with their romantic partner. Participants, 54 males and 60 females whose mean age was 33.4, completed a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Relationships Inventory (QRI), the Perceived Relationship Quality Component (PRQC), the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). Of these 114 participants, 52 trained with their romantic partner. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that individuals who trained with their romantic partner reported higher relationship satisfaction and quality compared to those that did not train for an endurance event with their romantic partner. There were no statistically significant differences in relationship satisfaction or relationship quality between men and women or between married individuals and dating individuals. These findings suggest that couples may benefit from engaging in shared activities.

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Date Created
2014

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The influence of psychological assessment language on counselor trainees' evaluations of client characteristics

Description

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of the assessments they compose, causing clients to be cast in

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of the assessments they compose, causing clients to be cast in an unfavorable light. Logically, the opinions of subsequent therapists may then be influenced by reading these assessments, resulting in negative attitudes toward clients, inaccurate diagnoses, adverse experiences for clients, and poor therapeutic outcomes. However, little current research exists that addresses this issue. This study analyzed the degree to which strength-based, deficit-based, and neutral language used in psychological assessments influenced the opinions of counselor trainees (N= 116). It was hypothesized that participants assigned to each type of assessment would describe the client using adjectives that closely conformed to the language used in the assessment they received. The hypothesis was confirmed (p = .000), indicating significant mean differences between all three groups. Limitations and implications of the study were identified and suggestions for further research were discussed.

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Date Created
2015

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Ethics and online behaviors: challenges among counseling and psychology graduate students

Description

Technology is rapidly evolving, and mental health professionals are increasingly using technology in their clinical work. In reaction to this shift, it is important that research examines the ethical implications of online behaviors. The current study examined the online practices

Technology is rapidly evolving, and mental health professionals are increasingly using technology in their clinical work. In reaction to this shift, it is important that research examines the ethical implications of online behaviors. The current study examined the online practices of graduate students in the mental health field and generated prediction models for online client searches and best practices in informed consent and online disclosure. The sample consisted of 316 graduate students in counseling, clinical, and school programs. Of those with clinical experience, a third had utilized the Internet to find information about their client. Progress in the participants' program, as measured by credits completed or in progress, and years of social networking experience were positively related to online client searches. The vast majority (over 80%) of individuals who conducted an online search did not obtain informed consent prior to the search. Curiosity was the most frequent reason given for conducting a client search. Previous professional discussions and belief that information online is private were not significant predictors of obtaining informed consent. The final analysis examined disclosure of client information and found that lower scores on ethical decision-making and years of social networking experience predicted online disclosure. This study is an important step in understanding the implications of the intersection of technology use, ethics, and clinical practice of graduate mental health professionals.

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Date Created
2012

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Exploring the motives, experiences, and transformations of non-professional IRONMAN athletes

Description

This study explored the motivation and persistence factors for non-professional athletes who decided after the age of 40 to begin training for an IRONMAN distance triathlon. The qualitative methodology of grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was used in conceptualizing

This study explored the motivation and persistence factors for non-professional athletes who decided after the age of 40 to begin training for an IRONMAN distance triathlon. The qualitative methodology of grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was used in conceptualizing and implementing the research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 individuals in the Southwest region of the United States. Data was coded in accordance with grounded theory methods. Motivation themes that emerged from the data centered around either initiating training for triathlon as an approach toward a specific goal or outcome, or beginning triathlon as a way to cope with personal difficulties. Obstacles to motivation also emerged, such as finances and time, injury, fear and doubt, and interpersonal difficulties. Persistence themes emerged that centered around either taking active steps to help continue training and relying on internal traits or characteristics to promote persistence. Data are discussed in terms of how these individuals adopt triathlon as a part of their lifestyle and identity, and how they come to persist in training beyond IRONMAN.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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How yoga masters experience mindfulness

Description

This study addressed the questions: What is the experience of mindfulness by yoga masters? How can such experiences inform the counseling intervention of mindfulness? In a qualitative study, individuals who held the minimum credentials E-RYT 200 (i.e., Experienced Registered Yoga

This study addressed the questions: What is the experience of mindfulness by yoga masters? How can such experiences inform the counseling intervention of mindfulness? In a qualitative study, individuals who held the minimum credentials E-RYT 200 (i.e., Experienced Registered Yoga Teacher 200 Hour) were interviewed. The verbatim interviews were analyzed using the phenomenological approach. Two categories of themes emerged describing mindfulness as a state of being and a practice of awareness. The common themes describing mindfulness as a state of being include: conscious awareness, feeling bliss, the present moment, interconnectedness, and compassionate evolution. The common themes describing mindfulness as a practice of awareness include: waking the body, balanced practice, the power of pranayama, refining abilities, obstacles to awareness, a holistic practice, and external supports. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness is multifaceted and ephemeral; however, with regular practice it becomes more consistently maintained. As a practice of awareness, mindfulness develops through a hierarchy of techniques moving from the external to the internal including both self and other. Discussion focuses on how these experiences can be applied in counseling interventions.

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Date Created
2012

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Factors influencing attitudes toward euthanasia

Description

Over recent decades, euthanasia has been a topic of increasing debate. With legalization of euthanasia in the states of Oregon and Washington and attempted reform in several other U.S. states and nations worldwide, it has become increasingly important to understand

Over recent decades, euthanasia has been a topic of increasing debate. With legalization of euthanasia in the states of Oregon and Washington and attempted reform in several other U.S. states and nations worldwide, it has become increasingly important to understand the roles and values of helping professionals who might be working with clients considering this option. The current study targeted 85 undergraduate students, 54 doctoral students in counseling psychology, and 53 doctoral-level professionals in psychology to assess both their personal values regarding euthanasia and their willingness to allow a client the autonomy to make a decision about euthanasia. Several factors were analyzed in regards to their relation to client autonomy and attitudes toward euthanasia, including age of client and sex of client. These variables were manipulated in vignettes to create four scenarios: a 24 year old male, 24 year old female, 80 year old male, 80 year old female. Other factors included level of education of the participant, spirituality and strength of religiosity of the participant, and personal experiences with deaths of friends or family members. Results indicated that more education was associated with greater support for euthanasia and that stronger religiosity and spirituality were related to less support for euthanasia. This study also found that participants did not exhibit differential levels of support based solely on the age or the sex of the client depicted in the vignette. Results further indicated that for doctoral students and professionals the loss of a loved one, regardless of cause of death, did not have a significant effect on their attitudes toward euthanasia. It is important for training programs to be aware of these findings in order to monitor trainees in terms of personal biases in the therapy relationship. With objectivity a high priority while working with clients, it is necessary to be aware of outside factors potentially influencing one's work with clients surrounding this value-laden issue.

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Date Created
2011

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The relation of ethnicity to outcome as moderated by interpersonal distress

Description

This work analyzed the role of interpersonal problems in interaction with ethnicity to predict psychotherapy outcome. A total of 262 individuals, who underwent psychotherapy at a counseling training facility, completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the reduced version of the

This work analyzed the role of interpersonal problems in interaction with ethnicity to predict psychotherapy outcome. A total of 262 individuals, who underwent psychotherapy at a counseling training facility, completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the reduced version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32). This study posited the following research question: Is the magnitude of the effect of ethnicity on treatment outcome conditional on certain IP dimensions (dominance or affiliation)? The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not ethnicity, represented by 3 ethnic groups (Whites, Hispanics, and Asians), was related to treatment outcome, and if this relationship was moderated by two interpersonal distress dimensions: dominance and affiliation. The results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnicity did not predict post-treatment outcome gain, and neither affiliation nor dominance was a moderator of the relationship between outcome and ethnicity.

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Date Created
2011