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Background and non-cognitive factors influencing academic persistence decisions in college freshmen

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As the retention rate of college freshmen increases, Tinto's (1993) model of academic persistence conceptualizes several dimensions of students' voluntary dropout. This study examined both personal and parental factors that may impact the academic persistence decisions of freshmen college students:

As the retention rate of college freshmen increases, Tinto's (1993) model of academic persistence conceptualizes several dimensions of students' voluntary dropout. This study examined both personal and parental factors that may impact the academic persistence decisions of freshmen college students: 1) parental educational attainment; 2) parental valuing of education; 3) high school grade point average (GPA); 4) residential status (on- versus off-campus); 5) educational self-efficacy; 6) self-esteem; 7) personal valuing of education; 8) perceived academic preparation; and 9) academic expectations. The study sample consisted of 378 freshmen college students at a large southwestern university who were recruited from 23 sections of a 100-level class intended to promote academic success. The participants in this cross-sectional study were restricted to freshman level students and 18 and 19 years old in accordance with Erikson's (1968) Identity stage of psychosocial development. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that academic persistence decisions were predicted by residential status and self-beliefs, which consisted of: educational self-efficacy, self-esteem, personal valuing of education, perceived academic preparation, and academic expectations. Parental valuing of education was a significant predictor of academic persistence decisions until self-beliefs were added to construct the full model. Although self-beliefs were collectively the most powerful predictors of persistence decisions, accounting for 22.8% of the variance, examination of the beta weights revealed that self-esteem, educational self-efficacy, and personal valuing of education were the most powerful predictors, while academic expectations approached significance. Residential status was also a significant predictor and accounted for a small but significant variance (1.6%) in academic persistence decisions. A significant multivariate difference was found between students living on campus and those living off campus. Follow-up ANOVAs revealed differences in mother's education and in parental valuing of education. These findings suggest that researchers, counselors, and college policy-makers consider on-campus living variables as well as students' self-beliefs when considering academic persistence decisions in college freshmen.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Development of the internalized racism scale for Asian Americans

Description

Internalized racism is a destructive, yet insidious psychological effect of racism. Although it has garnered increased attention in the research and clinical community due to its pervasive impact in racial minority individuals, empirical research on this topic has been limited.

Internalized racism is a destructive, yet insidious psychological effect of racism. Although it has garnered increased attention in the research and clinical community due to its pervasive impact in racial minority individuals, empirical research on this topic has been limited. At the time of this study, no existing scale captures the key dimensions of internalized racism of Asian Americans. This study attempted to fill this gap by developing a self-report instrument that identified the key dimensions of this psychological construct. Seven hundred and fourteen Asian Americans participated in this study, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to investigate the factor structure of the scale. Results indicated that the Internalized Racism Scale for Asian Americans (IRSAA) has five factors, which are Endorsement of Negative Stereotypes, Sense of Inferiority, Denial or Minimization of Racism, Emasculation of Asian American Men, and Within-group Discrimination. This dissertation also examines and discusses the evidence of convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity for the IRSAA subscales.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

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Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

Description

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Career interests and volunteerism: : factors related to satisfaction and commitment among late-midlife and older volunteers

Description

Problems with recruiting and retaining older volunteers have resulted in less than one-quarter of older adults participating in volunteer activities (BLS, 2016). Much emphasis on volunteer motivations have been placed to enhance volunteer engagement among late-midlife and older adults

Problems with recruiting and retaining older volunteers have resulted in less than one-quarter of older adults participating in volunteer activities (BLS, 2016). Much emphasis on volunteer motivations have been placed to enhance volunteer engagement among late-midlife and older adults (e.g., Davis et al., 2003). Although career motivations have not been shown to predict late-midlife and older adults’ volunteer participation (Planalp & Trost, 2009), there is some empirical evidence supporting the relevance of career domains in later life (Greller, 2006). By reframing volunteering as a compensatory strategy, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate factors, including career-related interests, that affect volunteer satisfaction and commitment among late-midlife and older volunteers.

A series of hypotheses were posited to examine contributions to volunteer satisfaction and to future volunteer commitment, including volunteer motivation and congruence between career interests of volunteers and characteristics of the volunteer activities (volunteer-activity congruence). The online survey contained measures for study variables, including the Volunteer Functional Inventory (volunteer motivations) and Personal Globe Inventory (career interests). Participants (N = 167) were recruited from community and government volunteer programs with the average age of volunteers being 68.65 years old (SD = 9.36; range 50 to 90 years). The majority of volunteers were female (54.5%), White or Caucasian (90.4%), married (58.2%), reported some college experience (96.5%) and were retired (68.9%).

Results from the current study indicated that time volunteering, volunteer motivations, and volunteer-activity congruence did not significantly predict volunteer satisfaction, accounting for 9.2% of the variance. In contrast, the final model did significantly predict volunteer commitment and accounted for 13.1% of the model variance, with altruistic values remaining a significant contributor to volunteer commitment. Findings from the current study highlight inconsistencies noted in previous research regarding volunteer motivations, satisfaction, and commitment. Possible generational influences on altruistic values and volunteerism were also noted. Although volunteer-activity congruence alone was not predictive of volunteer satisfaction or of commitment, results from the study warrant additional investigations in career interests and volunteering among late-midlife and older adults. Limitations of the current study and implications for volunteer recruitment and retention were also discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

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Counselor Humor and the Working Relationship

Description

While there is an extensive literature on the theoretical and anecdotal basis of

humor being a key aspect of psychotherapy, there is relatively little research. In this study, I addressed whether the frequency of therapist humor is related to subsequent therapeutic

While there is an extensive literature on the theoretical and anecdotal basis of

humor being a key aspect of psychotherapy, there is relatively little research. In this study, I addressed whether the frequency of therapist humor is related to subsequent therapeutic alliance ratings by the client. I also examined if therapist humor use is related to improvement in client symptomology. I hypothesized that there will be a positive correlation between humor use and the working alliance while there will be a negative correlation between humor use and client symptomology. Video recordings of therapy sessions were coded for humor (defined by laughter present in response to the therapist) or no humor (laughter not present). These ratings were correlated to client perceptions of the working alliance (using the WAI-S) and client symptomology. I found no correlations between humor and changes in working alliance or client symptomology. The results suggest that humor use in counseling does not seem to matter, however possible limitations of the study mitigate such conclusions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

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The relationship between clinical experience, emotional intelligence and counselor self-efficacy with resilience as a moderator

Description

Emotions are essential ingredients to the human experience. How one feels influences how one thinks and behaves. The processing capacity for emotion-related information can be thought of as emotional intelligence (Salovey & Mayer, 1997). Regulating emotions and coping

Emotions are essential ingredients to the human experience. How one feels influences how one thinks and behaves. The processing capacity for emotion-related information can be thought of as emotional intelligence (Salovey & Mayer, 1997). Regulating emotions and coping with emotional experiences are among the most common reasons individuals seek counseling. Counselors must be uniquely equipped in processing and managing emotional content. Counselor’s skills and abilities related to emotional intelligence are vital to effective counseling. There is indication that confidence in one’s counseling skills may be equally as important as competence in these skills. Counselor self-efficacy, one’s belief in one’s ability to perform counseling activities, has been shown to relate to counselor performance and ability and increased clinical experience has been associated with higher levels of counselor self-efficacy (Larson & Daniels, 1998). One’s emotion-related information processing abilities and one’s clinical experiences may contribute to one’s perception of one’s competencies and abilities as a counselor.

However, this relationship may not be a simple cause-and-effect association. Individuals may possess a certain aptitude (emotional intelligence) and not perceive themselves as competent as counselors. Resilience, one’s ability to “bounce-back” and persevere through adversity may moderate the relation between emotional intelligence and counselor self-efficacy (Wagnild, 1990).

The current study explored the relations among clinical experience, emotional intelligence and resilience in predicting self-efficacy. In addition, whether resilience would moderate the relationship between emotional intelligence and counselor self-efficacy was examined. Eighty counselor trainees enrolled in CACREP-accredited master’s programs participated in this study online. They completed a demographics form, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, et al., 2002), the Counselor Activities Self-Efficacy Scales (CASES; Lent et al., 2003), and The Resilience Scale (RS; Wagnild & Young, 1993). Multiple hierarchical regressions revealed clinical experience (specifically a completed practicum), emotional intelligence, and resilience predicted counselor self-efficacy. The moderation was not significant. These findings support the value of the exploration of clinical experience, emotional intelligence and resilience in developing counselor self-efficacy. A more comprehensive discussion of the findings, limitations, and implications of the current study as well as suggested direction for future research are discussed herein.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

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Student Veterans’ Career Decision-Making and College Stress: College Environment, Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms, and Sense of Coherence

Description

Given the post 9/11 influx of veteran students in higher education and the importance of early career decision-making for establishment of a post-graduation careers, understanding factors that help and hinder the college success and career decision-making of student veterans is

Given the post 9/11 influx of veteran students in higher education and the importance of early career decision-making for establishment of a post-graduation careers, understanding factors that help and hinder the college success and career decision-making of student veterans is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of veterans in higher education in relation to career decision-making difficulties. Thus, the influence of variables related to campus environment (mentoring and cultural congruity), experiences of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and college stress, and resilience as evidenced by sense of coherence (SOC) was investigated.

A sample of 239 United States Armed Forces veterans (171 male, 67 female, 1 nonbinary) enrolled in institutions of higher education across the United States was recruited through an online program. In addition to a demographic sheet, participants completed self-report measures assessing cultural congruity, sense of coherence, post-traumatic stress symptoms, mentoring, college stress, and career decision-making difficulties.

Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that of the two constructs comprising campus environment, only cultural congruity was a significant and negative predictor of college stress. Mentoring was not a significant predictor. Post-traumatic stress symptoms predicted college stress above and beyond the variance predicted by college environment. The greater student veterans’ post-traumatic stress symptoms, the more college stress they reported experiencing. A moderated hierarchical regression revealed that college environment did not moderate the relation between post-traumatic stress symptoms and college stress. College stress was found to be a positive predictor of career decision-making difficulties. Sense of coherence did not moderate the relation between college stress and career decision-making difficulties.

Findings are discussed in the context of Schlossberg’s transition model, which posits that individuals will navigate the transition process based on their perceptions of the transition and their personal assets and liabilities, factors that influence coping ability. Limitations and clinical implications for working with student veterans are presented. The importance of early intervention to enhance cultural congruity and address post-traumatic stress symptoms and career decision-making difficulties among student veterans is discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020