Matching Items (8)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

154366-Thumbnail Image.png

Experimental evaluation of internet-based stress inoculation for adult children of divorce

Description

Descriptions of gray divorce often include consequences for young adult children who are increasingly being left to cope with their parents’ decision. Adult children of divorce may experience different stressors and reactions than younger children especially during holidays; moreover, their

Descriptions of gray divorce often include consequences for young adult children who are increasingly being left to cope with their parents’ decision. Adult children of divorce may experience different stressors and reactions than younger children especially during holidays; moreover, their increased social awareness leaves their parental relationship vulnerable to rupture as a result of pressure to choose sides. Interventions for helping young adults cope with their parents’ break-up are rarely described, much less evaluated. An online delivery format would be especially well-suited given the possibility of in-home participation at any time of day with privacy assured and negligible cost. We thus developed and experimentally evaluated Transitions, a two week internet-based program organized around a classic stress inoculation framework. The goals of Transitions are to foster stress-coping skills and to improve parent-child relationships throughout the divorce process. Our study was restricted to young adult college students (N = 95) who had experienced parental separation or divorce within the past year, and who were not receiving psychological services elsewhere. Participants were screened and randomly assigned to experimental and delayed-treatment control conditions; a priori analyses indicated sufficient power to detect large effects. During the first week of Transitions, participants received psychoeducation, training in progressive muscle relaxation, and a cognitive restructuring curriculum derived from Ellis and Beck. The second week began with a review and then introduced mindfulness meditation and communication skills. Practice sessions were embedded throughout the curriculum and simulations were specific to experiences of parental divorce. Videos of young college graduates sharing personal stories about their parents’ divorce were streamed between each module. Comprehension of the content presented in Transitions was monitored and coded for partial or full completion of the program. Outcome measures were keyed to the nature of the clinical problem and interventions deployed. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) yielded a significant interaction. Univariate follow-up ANOVAs showed significant improvement relative to controls on stress but not on relationship variables. Neither moderator nor intent-to-treat analyses altered this outcome pattern. Future research will focus on refining the stress reduction components of Transitions and improving its impact on relationships with parents.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

150201-Thumbnail Image.png

Counselors-in-training's perceptions of clients: the influences of client weight and job status

Description

It is crucial for counselors to be aware of their own attitudes and beliefs and to prevent them from influencing the counseling process. The prevalence of obesity is growing and biases against obese people are becoming more apparent. Counselors must

It is crucial for counselors to be aware of their own attitudes and beliefs and to prevent them from influencing the counseling process. The prevalence of obesity is growing and biases against obese people are becoming more apparent. Counselors must become aware of the potential weight bias and what factors influence it. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether counselors- in-training hold negative attitudes toward obese clients and whether the career status of the client affects these perceptions. Seventy-six students in graduate level counseling programs at Arizona State University were randomly assigned one of four vignettes describing either an obese bookkeeper, a normal weight bookkeeper, an obese executive, or a normal weight executive. Negative attitudes were measured using two scales; one evaluating perceived personal characteristics of the client and one evaluating the perceived work efficacy. Results indicated that counselors-in-training perceived the client with more negative characteristics when the client was described as obese rather than normal weight, and also when she was described as having a low status job compared to a high status job. The perceived work efficacy of the presented client was not affected by the client’s weight or job status. It is important for students in counseling programs to receive training regarding weight biases and job status biases.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

149491-Thumbnail Image.png

The incremental effects of ethnically matched animated agents in restructuring the irrational career beliefs of African American young women

Description

Although women of color have increased their presence in the workplace, many obstacles restricting career opportunities still exist. It is important that mental health professionals contribute in providing interventions to increase career opportunities for women of color. The purpose of

Although women of color have increased their presence in the workplace, many obstacles restricting career opportunities still exist. It is important that mental health professionals contribute in providing interventions to increase career opportunities for women of color. The purpose of this research is to add to the repertoire of interventions by studying the irrational career beliefs of Black women. This research utilizes the Believe It! program, an online career development program that focuses on altering irrational/maladaptive career beliefs that can prevent young females from pursuing career opportunities. An early study of Believe It! found it to be effective for Caucasian females, however the effects for minority females were less clear. The current study re-examined the effectiveness of Believe It! for minorities by altering the appearance of the animated character within the program. It was hypothesized that young African American women interacting with African American animated agents would display greater rationality in terms of career beliefs compared to young African American women interacting with Caucasian animated agents. Forty-four African American girls between the ages of eleven to fifteen were pre-tested with a battery of assessment devices addressing the irrationality of the girls' career beliefs. The measures included the Career Myths Scale, the Career Beliefs Inventory, the Occupational Sex-role Questionnaire, and the Believe It! measure. Four to eight days later, participants engaged in the online Believe It! Program; they were randomly assigned to either a matched condition (viewing the program with an African American animated agent) or a mismatched condition (viewing the program with a Caucasian animated agent). After completion of the intervention, participants were post-tested with the same assessment battery. MANCOVA and ANCOVA analyses showed that participants in the matched condition consistently benefitted from the matched intervention. Implications for this research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

151829-Thumbnail Image.png

The incremental effects of ethnically matching animated agents in restructuring the irrational career beliefs of Chinese American young women

Description

Believe It! is an animated interactive computer program that delivers cognitive restructuring to adolescent females' irrational career beliefs. It challenges the irrational belief and offers more reasonable alternatives. The current study investigated the potentially differential effects of Asian versus Caucasian

Believe It! is an animated interactive computer program that delivers cognitive restructuring to adolescent females' irrational career beliefs. It challenges the irrational belief and offers more reasonable alternatives. The current study investigated the potentially differential effects of Asian versus Caucasian animated agents in delivering the treatment to young Chinese American women. The results suggested that the Asian animated agent was not significantly superior to the Caucasian animated agent. Nor was there a significant interaction between level of acculturation and the effects of the animated agents. Ways to modify the Believe It! program for Chinese American users were recommended.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

152818-Thumbnail Image.png

The incremental effects of ethnically matched animated agents in restructuring the irrational career beliefs of rural caucasian young women

Description

The Believe It! program developed and evaluated by Kovalski & Horan (1999) was the first interactive, multimedia, psychological-education intervention deployed on the Internet. In a controlled study, the authors reported that the ethnically diverse cartoon models were partially successful in

The Believe It! program developed and evaluated by Kovalski & Horan (1999) was the first interactive, multimedia, psychological-education intervention deployed on the Internet. In a controlled study, the authors reported that the ethnically diverse cartoon models were partially successful in using cognitive restructuring to promote more reasonable career beliefs among Caucasian middle-school young women. It was not clear if the program's lack of efficacy among minority young women was due to computer literacy factors affected by SES. Subsequently, three studies explored the role of matching or mismatching the ethnicity of animated agents in a graphically enhanced program with that of the young women receiving the cognitive restructuring treatment. Each of the studies used the same four outcome measures (Occupational Sex-Role Questionnaire, Believe It Measure, Career Beliefs Inventory, and the Career Myths Scale) before and after matched and mismatched participants received the Believe It! intervention. Webster (2010) analyzed data from African-American participants, Hardy (2011) Latinas, and Zhang (2013) Asian-Americans. The current study examined the matching hypothesis on a sample of ethnically isolated Caucasian young women in a rural setting. The results obtained in the three previous studies are consistent with similar research involving client and counselor dyads (e.g., Cabral & Smith, 2011). The Believe It! program had a clear impact on ethnically matched African-American young women, whereas pairings on ethnicity did not improve outcomes for either Latinas or Asian-Americans. A solitary effect on the Occupation Sex-Role Questionnaire in the current study suggests the hypothesis is worthy of further study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

155287-Thumbnail Image.png

Effects of internet training in mindfulness meditation on variables related to cancer recovery

Description

Cancer survivors engaged in either six-week Internet-delivered mindfulness training or a usual-care control and were compared on the following outcome battery: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Fatigue

Cancer survivors engaged in either six-week Internet-delivered mindfulness training or a usual-care control and were compared on the following outcome battery: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment and intervention compliance was monitored. Mindfulness treatments were delivered at a time and on a computer of the participants’ choosing. Multivariate analysis indicated that mindfulness training produced significant benefits on all measures (p < .05). Online mindfulness instruction represents a widely-accessible, cost-effective intervention for reducing psychological distress and its behavioral manifestations in cancer survivors, especially those who are unable to participate in in-person training.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

156730-Thumbnail Image.png

Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

Description

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

155650-Thumbnail Image.png

Experimental evaluation of DEFUSE: online de-escalation training for law enforcement intervening in mental health crises

Description

Training for law enforcement on effective ways of intervening in mental health crises is limited. What is available tends to be costly for implementation, labor-intensive, and requires officers to opt-in. DEFUSE, an interactive online training program, was specifically developed to

Training for law enforcement on effective ways of intervening in mental health crises is limited. What is available tends to be costly for implementation, labor-intensive, and requires officers to opt-in. DEFUSE, an interactive online training program, was specifically developed to train law enforcement on mental illness and de-escalation skills. Derived from a stress inoculation framework, the curriculum provides education, skills training, and rehearsal; it is brief, cost-effective, and scalable to officers across the country. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental or delayed treatment control conditions. A multivariate analysis of variance yielded a significant treatment-by-repeated-measures interaction and univariate analyses confirmed improvement on all of the measures (e.g., empathy, stigma, self-efficacy, behavioral outcomes, knowledge). Replication dependent t-test analyses conducted on the control condition following completion of DEFUSE confirmed significant improvement on four of the measures and marginal significance on the fifth. Participant responses to BPAD video vignettes revealed significant differences in objective behavioral proficiency for those participants who completed the online course. DEFUSE is a powerful tool for training law enforcement on mental illness and effective strategies for intervening in mental health crises. Considerations for future study are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017