Academic outcomes in documented and undocumented student advocates: a test of social cognitive career theory
The Student Performance Accomplishments Questionnaire (SPAQ) was developed and validated in two studies with two normative samples totaling 315 college students, including a subsample of undocumented students. This instrument assesses academic performance accomplishments in the context of students' academic, extracurricular, and advocacy roles. Performance accomplishments are theorized to be one of four sources of efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 1986). Study 2 tested part of the Social Cognitive Career Theory model (Lent et al., 1994) in a sample of 154 student advocates. By conventional standards, the results yielded no support for the SCCT model and suggested the need for an alternative model. Results showed that student performance accomplishments in advocacy are highly related to students' academic outcomes, particularly choice actions. Choice actions were subsequently related to career goals and academic performance. No significant differences were found between documented and undocumented students on any of the variables studied. It was found that student advocates were significantly higher in performance accomplishments in advocacy, academic self-efficacy, choice action, and academic performance in comparison to student non-advocates. Clinical and research implications of these results for the field of counseling psychology were discussed.