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Academic outcomes in documented and undocumented student advocates: a test of social cognitive career theory

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The Student Performance Accomplishments Questionnaire (SPAQ) was developed and validated in two studies with two normative samples totaling 315 college students, including a subsample of undocumented students. This instrument assesses academic performance accomplishments in the context of students' academic, extracurricular,

The Student Performance Accomplishments Questionnaire (SPAQ) was developed and validated in two studies with two normative samples totaling 315 college students, including a subsample of undocumented students. This instrument assesses academic performance accomplishments in the context of students' academic, extracurricular, and advocacy roles. Performance accomplishments are theorized to be one of four sources of efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 1986). Study 2 tested part of the Social Cognitive Career Theory model (Lent et al., 1994) in a sample of 154 student advocates. By conventional standards, the results yielded no support for the SCCT model and suggested the need for an alternative model. Results showed that student performance accomplishments in advocacy are highly related to students' academic outcomes, particularly choice actions. Choice actions were subsequently related to career goals and academic performance. No significant differences were found between documented and undocumented students on any of the variables studied. It was found that student advocates were significantly higher in performance accomplishments in advocacy, academic self-efficacy, choice action, and academic performance in comparison to student non-advocates. Clinical and research implications of these results for the field of counseling psychology were discussed.

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2013

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Growth mindset training to increase women's self-efficacy in science and engineering: a randomized-controlled trial

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Undeclared undergraduates participated in an experimental study designed to explore the impact of an Internet-delivered "growth mindset" training on indicators of women's engagement in science, engineering, technology, and mathematics ("STEM") disciplines. This intervention was hypothesized to increase STEM self-efficacy

Undeclared undergraduates participated in an experimental study designed to explore the impact of an Internet-delivered "growth mindset" training on indicators of women's engagement in science, engineering, technology, and mathematics ("STEM") disciplines. This intervention was hypothesized to increase STEM self-efficacy and intentions to pursue STEM by strengthening beliefs in intelligence as malleable ("IQ attitude") and discrediting gender-math stereotypes (strengthening "stereotype disbelief"). Hypothesized relationships between these outcome variables were specified in a path model. The intervention was also hypothesized to bolster academic achievement. Participants consisted of 298 women and 191 men, the majority of whom were self-identified as White (62%) and 18 years old (85%) at the time of the study. Comparison group participants received training on persuasive writing styles and control group participants received no training. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment, comparison, or control groups. At posttest, treatment group scores on measures of IQ attitude, stereotype disbelief, and academic achievement were highest; the effects of group condition on these three outcomes were statistically significant as assessed by analysis of variance. Results of pairwise comparisons indicated that treatment group IQ attitude scores were significantly higher than the average IQ attitude scores of both comparison and control groups. Treatment group scores on stereotype disbelief were significantly higher than those of the comparison group but not those of the control group. GPAs of treatment group participants were significantly higher than those of control group participants but not those of comparison group participants. The effects of group condition on STEM self-efficacy or intentions to pursue STEM were not significant. Results of path analysis indicated that the hypothesized model of the relationships between variables fit to an acceptable degree. However, a model with gender-specific paths from IQ attitude and stereotype disbelief to STEM self-efficacy was found to be superior to the hypothesized model. IQ attitude and stereotype disbelief were positively related; IQ attitude was positively related to men's STEM self-efficacy; stereotype disbelief was positively related to women's STEM self-efficacy, and STEM self-efficacy was positively related to intentions to pursue STEM. Implications and study limitations are discussed, and directions for future research are proposed.

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Date Created
2014

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Understanding the role of social support in the association between loneliness and well-being for STEM graduate students

Description

As women enter STEM fields they are often presented with chilly climates. The chilly climate refers to incidents of sexism, isolation, and pressure to prove themselves to peers and higher level academics (Callister, 2006; Hall & Sandler, 1982). For women

As women enter STEM fields they are often presented with chilly climates. The chilly climate refers to incidents of sexism, isolation, and pressure to prove themselves to peers and higher level academics (Callister, 2006; Hall & Sandler, 1982). For women of color, the status of being a double minority can intensify the psychological distress experienced by students (Joseph, 2012; Ong, 2011; Malcom, Hall, & Brown, 1976). For minority populations in STEM, loneliness is experienced due to lack of belonging and social isolation (Morris & Daniel, 2008; Walton & Cohen, 2007). This study sought to investigate whether social support could serve as a protective factor in the negative relationship between loneliness and psychological well-being (Cohen, 2004; Lawson, 2001; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) for those who hold a minority status. In addition, this study explored differences in the associations between loneliness, social support, and psychological well being and whether or not the moderation relationships were different for sub-groups based on gender or ethnic minority status. Cross-sectional data from 205 STEM graduate students was collected through an online study. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the buffering effects (Barron & Kenny, 1986) of global social support (total support from friends, family, and significant others) and family social support specifically. Model results suggested that global social support buffers the negative associations between loneliness and psychological well-being for less lonely minority participants in the study. Family social support buffered the associations of loneliness on psychological well-being for men with less loneliness. An unexpected finding in the present study revealed that for men and non –minority participants with high loneliness, psychological well-being decreased as family support increased. These results highlight the need for further research exploring through which mechanisms social support works as a buffer against loneliness in the sub-groups within STEM graduate student populations. The findings of this study could inform practices focused on the recruitment and retention of underrepresented STEM graduate students.

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Date Created
2017

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Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

Description

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Date Created
2018

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Are all nondisclosures created equally?: an exploratory factor analysis of the content of supervisee nondisclosure

Description

This study examined the factor structure of supervisee disclosure in clinical supervision. An original survey measure was created for this study, the Supervisee Disclosure Scale (SDS). Through exploratory factor analysis eight specific content areas of supervisee disclosure were identified. The

This study examined the factor structure of supervisee disclosure in clinical supervision. An original survey measure was created for this study, the Supervisee Disclosure Scale (SDS). Through exploratory factor analysis eight specific content areas of supervisee disclosure were identified. The eight specific content areas of supervisee disclosure include: Perceived Clinical Inadequacy, Transference Issues, Strengths of the Supervisory Relationship, Clinical Successes, Self, Weaknesses of the Supervisory Bond, Dissatisfaction with the Clinical Setting, and Own Clinical Voice. Furthermore, this study examined the potential relationship of clinical experience with the content areas of supervisee disclosure. The results of this study support a relationship between greater clinical experience and disclosure of items related to Self but not with the other content areas. Additionally, the bi-level factor structure of the Working Alliance Inventory/Supervision-Short (WAI-SS) was validated via confirmatory factor analysis. The bi-level factor structure of the WAI-SS identifies a hierarchical structure of general alliance in addition to the specific factors of task, bond, and goal. Lastly, this study preliminarily evaluated the relationship between WAI-SS factors of general alliance, task, bond, and goal and the preliminary specific content areas of supervisee disclosure. The hierarchical factor of general alliance was a statistically significant predictor for all specific content areas of supervisee disclosure. The preliminary findings of this study, highlight the important differences in the relationships among the specific factors of the supervisory working alliance and content areas of supervisee nondisclosure. The factor of task was not significantly correlated with content areas of supervisee disclosure and the factor of goal was only a significant predictor for two content areas of disclosure: Strengths of the Supervisory Relationship and Dissatisfaction with Clinical Setting. The factor of bond was significantly correlated with six content areas of supervisee disclosure and significantly predicted five content areas: Strengths of the Supervisory Relationship, Clinical Successes, Self, Weaknesses of the Supervisory Bond, and Dissatisfaction with the Clinical Setting. This study contributes specificity to the supervision literature on supervisee disclosure and nondisclosure. The results of this study provide a psychometrically sound foundation for future research to identify aspects of the supervisory working alliance that may reduce supervisee nondisclosure.

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Date Created
2018