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Predicting undergraduates' intent to persist in STEM: : self-efficacy, role salience and anticipated work-family conflict

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In recent years, women have made significant advances in traditionally male occupations. Despite this progress, women are still underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the model of Achievement Related Choices

In recent years, women have made significant advances in traditionally male occupations. Despite this progress, women are still underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the model of Achievement Related Choices are two widely accepted career development theories. Both theories highlight the importance of self-efficacy and personal factors in career development; yet, neither of them has considered the predictive power of a specific outcome expectation, anticipated work family conflict (AWFC), in relation to the career development of men and women in STEM undergraduate programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the incremental validity of AWFC over and above that of self-efficacy and role salience, in predicting educational and occupational aspirations of undergraduate students in STEM programs at a large southwestern university. The study provides evidence that the factor structure of the AWFC scale does not hold up with the undergraduate population, and this finding was seen as reason to combine the AWFC subscales into one composite score. In a hierarchical multiple regression higher levels of STEM self-efficacy predicted higher intentions to persist in STEM. Role salience, AWFC, and the gender-AWFC interaction were not significantly related to intentions to persist. Although the study does not provide evidence for the incremental validity of AWFC, it does suggest that work-family balance considerations that have been observed in mature STEM populations may not yet be salient for students at the undergraduate level.

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Date Created
2014

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What doesnt kill me [untitled]: predictors of posttraumatic growth among traumatic brain injury survivors of motor vehicle accidents

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Decades of research and empirical studies support the belief that traumatic life events lead to a multitude of negative outcomes (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996), however, new research suggests that some survivors of trauma experience significant psychological growth, known as posttraumatic

Decades of research and empirical studies support the belief that traumatic life events lead to a multitude of negative outcomes (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996), however, new research suggests that some survivors of trauma experience significant psychological growth, known as posttraumatic growth (PTG) (Tedeschi, Park, & Calhoun, 1998). The current study focused on the trauma of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its relation to the development of PTG. A TBI is both a psychological trauma and a type of acquired brain injury that occurs when physical injury causes damage to the brain (National Institutes of Health [NIH], 2013). Empirical studies examining TBIs and PTG are minimal. The current study focused on survivors who have sustained a TBI from a motor vehicle accident to help control for contextual factors of the injury that are known to affect outcomes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physical, sociodemographic, contextual, and psychological factors that helped predict the development of PTG among a population of TBI survivors. In addition, another aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Cross-sectional data from self-identified TBI survivors of motor vehicle accidents (n = 155) were used to construct a model of prediction of PTG. Preliminary analyses revealed a reliability issue with the measure that assessed participants’ personality, and these variables were not used in planned analyses. Results revealed that the majority of participants were female, Caucasian, highly educated, and unemployed. Overall, the sample indicated significant injury severity, disability, and lower than average mental and physical functioning. The final model accounted for approximately 15% of the variance in PTG and significant predictors included: gender, time since injury, and the interaction between PTSD symptoms and time since injury. The findings of this research can help inform treatment programs and rehabilitation services as well as funding that can aim to improve outcomes from survivors of TBI. Study limitations included the use of cross-sectional data, a homogenous and unrepresentative sample of TBI survivors, recruitment concerns, and low reliability observed in one of the integral measures of the study.

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Date Created
2016

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Counseling self-efficacy of international counseling students in the U.S: contributions of language anxiety, acculturation and social connectedness with American people

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of language anxiety, acculturation and social connectedness with American people to the counseling self-efficacy of international counseling students (ICSs) in the United States. The study used hierarchical multiple regression analysis

The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of language anxiety, acculturation and social connectedness with American people to the counseling self-efficacy of international counseling students (ICSs) in the United States. The study used hierarchical multiple regression analysis with a sample of ICSs from counseling, counseling psychology and related programs in the U.S. (N=72). Major findings indicated that ICSs’ language anxiety was inversely associated with their counseling self-efficacy; neither ICSs’ acculturation nor social connectedness with American people had a significant relationship with counseling self-efficacy. Further, there was no significant interaction between language anxiety and social connectedness with American people; language anxiety, acculturation, social connectedness with American people, and the interaction between language anxiety and social connectedness with American people together did not account for a significantly different amount of variance in counseling self-efficacy over and above the variance accounted for by language anxiety alone. Implications, limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

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Date Created
2016

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Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

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Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2018

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Exploring the relationship between critical consciousness and intent to persist in immigrant Latina/o college students

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The purpose of this investigation was to develop a testable integrative social cognitive model of critical consciousness (Freire, 1973) that explains the relationship between critical consciousness and intent to persist in college among underserved students, such as undocumented immigrants known

The purpose of this investigation was to develop a testable integrative social cognitive model of critical consciousness (Freire, 1973) that explains the relationship between critical consciousness and intent to persist in college among underserved students, such as undocumented immigrants known as DREAMers. Three constructs based on theory (i.e., critical reflection, critical action, and political efficacy) as well as a new one (i.e., political outcome expectations) were conceptualized and tested through a framework inspired by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994; Lent & Brown, 2013). A total of 638 college students participated in this study and reflected a spectrum of disadvantage and educational attainment, which included 120 DREAMers, 124 Latina/o students, 117 non-Latina/o minorities, and 277 non-Latina/o Whites. Goodness of fit tests showed support for the adequacy of using the new model with this diverse sample of students. Tests of structural invariance indicated that 10 relational paths in the model were invariant across student cultural groups, while 7 paths were differentiated. Most of the differences involved DREAMers and non-Latina/o White students. For DREAMers, critical action was positively related to intent to persist, while that relationship was negative for non-Latina/o Whites with legal status. Findings provide support to the structure of critical consciousness across cultural groups, highlight the key role that students’ supporters (i.e., important people in their life) play in their sociopolitical engagement and intent to persist, and suggest that political outcome expectations are related to higher persistence intention across all students.

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Created

Date Created
2017

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Different concerns for different careers: doctoral student career trajectories toward and away from the research professorship

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Research has revealed that familial concerns and obligations do impact the career decision making of people who shift their career goal away from the research academy and towards careers that are perceived as less intensive in terms of time and

Research has revealed that familial concerns and obligations do impact the career decision making of people who shift their career goal away from the research academy and towards careers that are perceived as less intensive in terms of time and productivity demands. However, this same research line does not explain whether or not those who persist in a research professorship career aspiration experience the same familial concerns and obligations as those who shift or compromise on that goal. In line with the theory of circumscription and compromise (TCC), the current study examined specific accessibility concerns, or perceptions of barriers associated with implementing a preferred career, that contribute to doctoral student career decision making. More specifically, two groups including those who shifted their career path away from the research professorship (compromisers) and those whose career paths remain geared towards the research professorship (persisters) were examined by multivariate analysis of variance with a covariate (MANCOVA) to determine how accessibility concerns differ according to group membership. Accessibility concerns were also examined for gender differences. Results from multivariate and between-subjects follow up tests point to significant differences between the two groups on two accessibility concerns, planning for a career and family and some components of work-time flexibility preferences. Compromisers reported significantly higher preferences for work-time flexibility and scored higher on the planning for a career and a family measure when compared to persisters. No gender differences in accessibility concerns were found but female persisters were less likely than male persisters to indicate plans for children/presence of children. This study provides support for the TCC as applied to doctoral student career development and provides evidence that doctoral student persisters and compromisers do not experience accessibility concerns in the same way.

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Agent

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Date Created
2018