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Structure of perfectionism and relation to career Indecision

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ABSTRACT Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a relatively stable, independent, multidimensional personality construct in research during the last two decades. Despite general agreement that perfectionism is dimensional in nature, analyses using these instruments vacillate between a dimensional approach and a

ABSTRACT Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a relatively stable, independent, multidimensional personality construct in research during the last two decades. Despite general agreement that perfectionism is dimensional in nature, analyses using these instruments vacillate between a dimensional approach and a categorical approach (Broman-Fulks, Hill, & Green, 2008; Stoeber & Otto, 2006). The goal of the current study was two-fold. One aim was to examine the structural nature of two commonly used measures of perfectionism, the APS-R and the HFMPS. Latent class and factor analyses were conducted to determine the dimensions and categories that underlie the items of these two instruments. A second aim was to determine whether perfectionism classes or perfectionism factors better predicted 4 criterion variables of career indecision. Results lent evidence to the claim that both the APS-R and HFMPS are best used as dimensional, rather than categorical instruments. From a substantive perspective, results indicated that both positive and negative aspects of perfectionism successfully predicted career indecision factors. The study concludes with a discussion of limitations, and implications for future research and counseling individuals with career indecision concerns.

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2013

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Differential help seeking among college students

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Research on psychological help seeking has continued to grow as the field of psychology has expanded. Much of the research is often variable driven and assumes this construct is a global construct. The current study used the Theory of Planned

Research on psychological help seeking has continued to grow as the field of psychology has expanded. Much of the research is often variable driven and assumes this construct is a global construct. The current study used the Theory of Planned Behavior to provide a theory based approach to understanding psychological help seeking intention. Also, the theory was tested for three common presenting concerns: Anxiety or Depression, Career Choice Concerns, and Alcohol or Substance Use. Two samples of over 400 university students completed surveys for all three concerns. Results produced invariance across path loadings for the concerns being compared. When thinking about seeking psychological help, university students do not appear to consider the type of concern but do rely on attitude, stigma, and how much control and efficacy they have to address their problems on their own. Mean differences emerged for some variables in the model, but no meaningful mean differences were noted for gender. Overall, the variables used in the decision making process do not appear to consider concern when seeking help, but the beliefs about seeking help differ some. These results extend the Theory of Planned Behavior to consider the importance of an individual's ability to address their problem on their own. When considering psychological help seeking, college students have similar attitudes and beliefs about their ability to access mental health resources, their beliefs about stigma, ability to address their problems on their own, and their intention to seek help vary more by concern. The specific concerns being addressed does not appear to impact the weight each variable is given in the decision making process; attitude, stigma, and ability to solve the problem on their own appear to be the variables given greatest consideration.

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2011

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A longitudinal examination of the relationship between interest-major congruence and the academic persistence, satisfaction, and achievement of undergraduate students

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Using a sample of 931 undergraduate students, the current study examined the influential factors on undergraduate students' academic performance, satisfaction, and intentions to persist in their enrolled major. Specifically, the current study investigated the salience of interest-major match in predicting

Using a sample of 931 undergraduate students, the current study examined the influential factors on undergraduate students' academic performance, satisfaction, and intentions to persist in their enrolled major. Specifically, the current study investigated the salience of interest-major match in predicting academic success. Interest-major match has been found to be one of the most influential determinants of academic and occupational success. However, support for this relationship has been equivocal and modest at best. The present study was designed to improve upon the current understanding of this relation by examining the moderating effect of gender and employing a longitudinal design to investigate the reciprocal relation between interest-major match and academic outcomes. Correlational results suggested that women reported greater interest-major match and results of the path analyses demonstrated a moderating effect of gender. Although a reciprocal relation was not supported, the findings indicated that a student’s level of academic satisfaction may influence the degree of fit between his or her interest and academic major. The results also highlight the tendency for students further along in their academic tenure to persist to graduation despite poor fit. Implications for educators and administrators are discussed.

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Date Created
2016

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Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

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Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Date Created
2018

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Factors Related to Academic Stress and Persistence Decisions of Diné College Students

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Native Americans reported the least number of degree completion than any other population in the United States. Native American students experience multiple challenges while in college making them a high-risk population for college departure. This study used two hierarchical multiple

Native Americans reported the least number of degree completion than any other population in the United States. Native American students experience multiple challenges while in college making them a high-risk population for college departure. This study used two hierarchical multiple regression to explore the relationship between non-cognitive factors (financial concerns, family support for education, cultural involvement, ethnic identity, academic self-efficacy) with both academic stress and academic persistence decisions from a combined sample of 209 Diné college students attending two tribal colleges on the Navajo reservation. Two-week test-retest reliabilities were calculated for three scales: family support for education, financial concerns, and Dine’ cultural involvement. The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity Scale was modified to measure two facets of ethnic identity (centrality and private regard) for Diné students. Academic Self-Efficacy was measured by the College Self-Efficacy Inventory. The Daily Hassles Index for College Stress was used to measure academic stress and the Persistence/Voluntary Dropout Decisions Scale was measured academic persistence decisions. Due to its suppression effect on the relation of private regard and academic stress, centrality was not included in the hierarchical regression predicting academic stress; however, it was included in the prediction of academic persistence decisions. Diné students reported high scores for family support for education that suggested that generally the students at Dine’ College perceived that their families as being supportive and encouraging their efforts to get their college degree. In the hierarchical regression predicting academic stress, in step one more cultural involvement and fewer financial concerns predicted less academic stress. In the final model, only fewer financial concerns

and greater academic self-efficacy predicted less academic stress. In the hierarchical regression predicting academic persistence decisions, private regard and academic self- efficacy were significant, positive predictors of persistence decisions. These findings are discussed in light of the role counseling psychologists can play in addressing financial concerns, ethnic identity, and academic self-efficacy among Dine’ students in order to decrease their academic stress and increase their positive decisions about staying in school.

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Date Created
2018

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Career decision ambiguity tolerance: a longitudinal examination of its relation to career indecision

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The current study investigated the dynamic interplay of career decision ambiguity tolerance and career indecision over three assessment times in a sample of college students (n=583). While the previous research has repeatedly shown an association of career decision ambiguity tolerance

The current study investigated the dynamic interplay of career decision ambiguity tolerance and career indecision over three assessment times in a sample of college students (n=583). While the previous research has repeatedly shown an association of career decision ambiguity tolerance with career indecision, the direction of this association has not been adequately assessed with longitudinal investigation. It was hypothesized in this study that there is a reciprocal pattern of career decision ambiguity tolerance leading to subsequent career indecision and career indecision leading to subsequent career decision ambiguity tolerance. Using a cross-lagged panel design, this study found support for the reciprocal pattern that aversion with ambiguity led to increased negative experience, choice anxiety, and lack of readiness in career decision making, while negative experience, choice anxiety, and lack of readiness led to increased aversion with ambiguity as well. Additionally, this study revealed that choice anxiety and readiness for career decision making led to increased interests in new information. The key findings were discussed with respect to the theoretical and clinical implications for career counseling along with limitations and suggestions for future research.

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Date Created
2017