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Personal conceptualization and use of mindfulness: developing an emerging model using a grounded theory framework

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An exploratory qualitative study was conducted using a grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006) to examine the subjective experiences of mindfulness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 individuals who practice mindfulness on a regular basis. Data analysis revealed domains related to

An exploratory qualitative study was conducted using a grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006) to examine the subjective experiences of mindfulness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 individuals who practice mindfulness on a regular basis. Data analysis revealed domains related to the experience, conditions, strategies and consequences related to the practice of mindfulness. The following main themes emerged: subjective experience, mechanism of practice, use of metaphors, contextual influences, and shift in perception. An emerging theoretical model related to the experience of mindfulness is also proposed. Implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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Date Created
2013

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The influence of psychological assessment language on counselor trainees' evaluations of client characteristics

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ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of the assessments they compose, causing clients to be cast in

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of the assessments they compose, causing clients to be cast in an unfavorable light. Logically, the opinions of subsequent therapists may then be influenced by reading these assessments, resulting in negative attitudes toward clients, inaccurate diagnoses, adverse experiences for clients, and poor therapeutic outcomes. However, little current research exists that addresses this issue. This study analyzed the degree to which strength-based, deficit-based, and neutral language used in psychological assessments influenced the opinions of counselor trainees (N= 116). It was hypothesized that participants assigned to each type of assessment would describe the client using adjectives that closely conformed to the language used in the assessment they received. The hypothesis was confirmed (p = .000), indicating significant mean differences between all three groups. Limitations and implications of the study were identified and suggestions for further research were discussed.

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Date Created
2015

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Pre-treatment client interpersonal problems relation to the initial working alliance using multilevel modeling

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This study examined the relationship of client pretreatment interpersonal problems (measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems) to the therapeutic alliance (as measured early in treatment by a self report version of the Working Alliance Inventory‐ Short) using multilevel modeling

This study examined the relationship of client pretreatment interpersonal problems (measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems) to the therapeutic alliance (as measured early in treatment by a self report version of the Working Alliance Inventory‐ Short) using multilevel modeling to account for client and counselor variables. Specifically, the correlations of dominance, hostility and cold/distance interpersonal problems with the initial working alliance were investigated. Participants consisted of 144 clients and 44 graduate student counselors at the Counselor Training Center at Arizona State University. The intraclass value of .23 indicated there is a sizable effect, with counselor differences accounting for 23% of the variance in client alliance ratings, supporting the use of multilevel modeling. There was a dominance counselor gender interaction with working alliance scores. Clients who had problems with dominance reported higher working alliance scores with male counselors while clients who had problems with submissiveness reported higher working alliance scores with female counselors. Hostile dominance interpersonal problems were associated with lower initial working alliance scores regardless of counselor gender. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

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Date Created
2012

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Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

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Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2018

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Latinas coping with intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology

Description

Previous research indicates that survivors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are at a greater risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. IPV survivors often use maladaptive coping strategies in response to IPV that place them at a higher risk

Previous research indicates that survivors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are at a greater risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. IPV survivors often use maladaptive coping strategies in response to IPV that place them at a higher risk for PTSD. Cultural gender roles/beliefs have been known to influence coping methods. Marianismo, a Latino/a gender role belief, has not been investigated in relation to IPV, coping strategies, and PTSD among Latinas. This study examined whether physical, psychological, or sexual abuse by a romantic partner, coping strategies, and Marianismo were associated with PTSD symptomatology among 157 college-aged Latinas. The participants completed an on-line survey that assessed IPV frequency, disengaged and engaged coping, Marianismo, and PTSD symptomatology. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, regardless of IPV type, more IPV and disengaged coping strategies were the best predictors of PTSD symptomatology. Marianismo did not significantly moderate the relation between coping and PTSD. However, the strong zero-order correlation between disengaged coping and Marianismo indicated they were highly correlated variables. The study findings are consistent with previous research that suggested that coping strategies are culturally dependent on beliefs and gender role expectations. Latinas may use more disengaged coping strategies because these methods may be deemed more culturally appropriate and reflect Marianismo beliefs. Psychologists working with Latina IPV survivors need to develop culturally sensitive approaches to psychoeducation on IPV and coping strategies that empower these women within their cultural belief systems and reduce their PTSD symptomatology.

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Created

Date Created
2017

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Damaged petals and tenacity: values expressed in fourth generation rap

Description

Employing ethnographic content analysis of 110 top Hip-Hop songs of 2004-2014 from Billboard and BET awards, this study investigated the most popular value themes of 4th generation Hip-Hop music and compared the messages of female and male rap artists. The

Employing ethnographic content analysis of 110 top Hip-Hop songs of 2004-2014 from Billboard and BET awards, this study investigated the most popular value themes of 4th generation Hip-Hop music and compared the messages of female and male rap artists. The 12 most frequently referenced messages included: 1) Celebration of Personal Success (77%), 2) Urban Consciousness, Identity, and Pride (68.8%), 3) Sexual Prowess/Seductive Power (62.1%), 4) Recreational Drug Use (54.9%), 5) Ready and Willing to Become Violent (48.8%), 6) Sexual Objectification (48.2%), 7) Reappropriation of Stigma Labels (36.4%), 8) Drive and Ambition (28.5%), 9) Self-Objectification (28.5%), 10) Struggle and Resilience (20%), 11) Providing Resources in Exchange for Sex (15.1%), and 12) Providing Sex in Exchange for Resources (10.3%). Male and female rap artists expressed similar messages. However, female rap artists were more likely to reappropriate stigma labels, promote self-objectifying lyrics, and depict themselves as providing sex in exchange for resources in their lyrics than were male rap artists. Male rap artists were more likely to sexually objectify others in their lyrics and depict themselves as providing resources in exchange for sex than were their female counterparts. Implications for counseling and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Professional Help-seeking Attitudes among Latter-day Saints: The Role of Gender, Distress, and Religiosity

Description

Factors of gender, marital status, and psychological distress are known to be related to help-seeking attitudes. This study sought to explore and understand the relations between gender, marital status, religiosity, psychological distress, and help-seeking attitudes among members of the Church

Factors of gender, marital status, and psychological distress are known to be related to help-seeking attitudes. This study sought to explore and understand the relations between gender, marital status, religiosity, psychological distress, and help-seeking attitudes among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The moderating effect of religious commitment on psychological distress and attitudes towards seeking professional help was explored through an online survey of 1,201 Latter-day Saint individuals. It was predicted that gender and marital status would predict distress and helping seeking attitudes and that religiosity would moderate the relation between distress and help-seeking attitudes among religious individuals, with individuals who experience high distress and low religiosity being more likely to seek help than individuals with high distress and high religiosity. Participants completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Religious Commitment Inventory-10, and the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help-Short Form online. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to test the study hypotheses. Although the accounted for variances were small, gender was the most significant variable associated with both distress and help seeking. Females reported higher distress and being more willing to seek psychological help than did males. Religiosity did not moderate the relation between distress and help-seeking attitudes. These findings are discussed in light of previous research and gender role schemas as relevant to Mormon culture.

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Date Created
2018

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Graduate school stress, dyadic coping, and well-being in asymmetrical graduate student couples

Description

The demands and expectations of graduate school can be stressful for any student. Graduate students in a romantic relationship, in particular, contend with both individual and dyadic effects of graduate school stress, as stress has been found to be negatively

The demands and expectations of graduate school can be stressful for any student. Graduate students in a romantic relationship, in particular, contend with both individual and dyadic effects of graduate school stress, as stress has been found to be negatively associated with both individual and relational well-being. Asymmetrical graduate student couples, wherein one partner is in graduate school and the other is not, may be particularly vulnerable to relationship strain because of differences in their experience of graduate school. However, non-student partners can help the graduate student cope with stress through dyadic coping. This study sought to examine whether: a) there were associations between graduate school stress on individual (life satisfaction) and relational (relationship satisfaction) well-being, and b) whether these associations were moderated by positive and negative dyadic coping behaviors. Cross-sectional data from 62 asymmetrical graduate student couples were gathered using an online survey. Data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook 2006). Separate models were conducted to examine overall associations between graduate stress and well-being, and additional analyses were conducted to examine potential moderation effects of perceptions of partner dyadic coping (actor effects) and partner self-reported dyadic coping (partner effects) on the overall associations between stress and life- and relationship satisfaction mentioned above. Results for the overall model suggested that graduate stress is associated with both individual- and relational well-being. Surprisingly, and against prior literature, positive dyadic coping did not buffer the negative association between graduate stress and well-being, and negative dyadic coping did not exacerbate the association. Implications of the findings for future research and for mental health counselors are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017