Matching Items (7)
- All Subjects: Counseling psychology
- All Subjects: Female Microaggressions
- Creators: Bludworth, James
- Member of: ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.
Role of Multiracial Resiliency on the Multiracial Risks - Psychological Adjustment Link Among Multiracial Adults
A growing body of research indicates that people of multiple racial lineages in the US encounter challenges to positive psychological adjustment because of their racial status. In response, they also exhibit unique resilience strategies to combat these challenges. In this study, the moderating roles of previously identified multiracial resilient factors (i.e., shifting expressions, creating third space, and multiracial pride) were examined in the associations between unique multiracial risk factors (i.e., multiracial discrimination, perceived racial ambiguity, and lack of family acceptance) and psychological adjustment (i.e., satisfaction with life, social connectedness, and distress symptoms) of multiracial adults. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, results first indicated that the multiracial risk factors (i.e., multiracial discrimination, perceived racial ambiguity, and lack of family acceptance) relate negatively with social connectedness and distress symptoms, but did not significantly relate with satisfaction with life. Additionally, a differential moderating effect for one multiracial resilient factor was found, such that the protective or exacerbative role of creating third space depends on the psychological outcome. Specifically, results suggest creating third space buffers (e.g., weakens) the association between multiracial discrimination and satisfaction with life as well as lack of family acceptance and satisfaction with life among multiracial adults. Results further suggest creating third space exacerbates (e.g., strengthens) the negative association between perceived racial ambiguity on social connectedness and distress symptoms as well as lack of family acceptance on social connectedness and distress symptoms. Moreover, no two-way interaction effects were found for either of the other multiracial resilient factors (i.e., shifting expressions and multiracial pride). This study highlights the complex nature of racial identity for multiracial people, and the nuanced risk and resilience landscape encountered in the US.
Depression Among College Students: The Role of Hope, Sense of Belonging, Social Support, and Mattering
Depression has been found to be a major problem for young adults in college, with multiple studies indicating high prevalence rates for this population. College students struggling with depression suffer from various consequences, including academic impairment and suicidal ideation, with suicide being a leading cause of death for people in the typical age range for undergraduates. Grounded in cognitive behavior theory and humanistic theory, this study examined the intra and interpersonal factors related to depression among undergraduates. Specifically, the interrelations between friend social support, sense of belonging to the college, mattering to friends, hope, and depressive symptoms were explored. Sex and number of close friends were controlled for, as the literature also showed evidence of their significant relations to depression. The sample consisted of 177 undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 25 from a large southwestern university. Participants responded to an online survey. While participants represented a diverse range of ethnicities, the majority were White. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that hope and sense of belonging to the college negatively predicted depressive symptoms. Furthermore, through zero-order correlations, it was found that friend social support, sense of belonging to the college, mattering to friends, and hope were all positively correlated with each other. Implications for prevention and clinical practice include the roles that counselors, college personnel, and students play in the battle against depression.
Dual autonomy: a culturally encompassing reinterpretation of traditional autonomy in clinical supervision
Traditional autonomy within clinical supervision was reinterpreted by incorporating culturally-encompassing autonomy types (individuating and relating autonomy) from the dual autonomy scale. The relations of vertical collectivism and autonomy measures were examined. Lastly, potential moderating effects of vertical collectivism on experience level and autonomy were assessed. The sample consisted of 404 counseling trainees enrolled in graduate programs across the US, aged between 21 and 68. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis supported the proposed two-factor structure of individuating and relating autonomy among counseling trainees for the adapted dual autonomy scale. Results indicated that individuating autonomy was moderately correlated with relating and traditional autonomy, and relating autonomy was not correlated with traditional autonomy. Vertical collectivism was not correlated with relating autonomy, but significantly predicted individuating and traditional autonomy. Moderating effects of vertical collectivism on experience level and autonomy were not supported. Further implications and future directions are discussed.
Associations between openness, relationship satisfaction, and perceived partner unresponsiveness and topic avoidance: moderating effects of dogmatism for individuals in a romantic relationship
Individuals in a romantic relationship may avoid discussing certain topics with their partner, often to avoid relational and emotional risk. This strategy is known as topic avoidance and may be an important factor for individuals in turbulent romantic relationship to consider due to the importance of communicating with a partner. The associations between characteristics such as openness, relationship satisfaction, and perceived partner unresponsiveness, and topic avoidance have not been directly studied within dogmatism literature. However, dogmatism, defined as a person’s relative openness (or closedness) to new information, may be an important construct associated with topic avoidance that strengthens the associations between perceived partner unresponsiveness, and topic avoidance, and weakens the association between openness, relationship satisfaction, and topic avoidance. Using data from 334 individuals in romantic relationships, results revealed that perceived partner unresponsiveness was positively associated with State of the Relationship, relationship satisfaction was positively associated with Conflict-Inducing and Negative Life Experiences, such that as scores on relationship satisfaction and perceived partner unresponsiveness increased, topic avoidance scores also increased. Openness was not associated with Topic Avoidance. Additionally, as predicted, dogmatism moderated the association between relationship satisfaction and State of the Relationship Topic Avoidance, the associations between perceived partner unresponsiveness and State of the Relationship Topic Avoidance and Negative Life Experiences Topic Avoidance. This research has important implications for clinicians working with individuals who present with relational concerns
and exhibit dogmatic behavior. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Research indicates that mental health issues are highly prevalent among college students (e.g., American College Health Association, 2018) and that first-generation students could be a higher risk of experiencing psychological distress compared to continuing-generation college students (House et al., 2019). Research also documents approximately two thirds of psychologically distressed college students do not seek help or mental health services (Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010). The purpose of the study was to contribute to the line of research on help seeking attitude and intention among college students by (1) examining potential group differences in the relationships between self-stigma, experiential avoidance, and help seeking attitude between first-generation college students and continuing-generation college students and (2) proposing the integrative model including variables from the moderated mediation model proposed by Brenner et al. (2019) and the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). The final sample for the study consisted of 295 college students (Mage = 22.95, SDage = 5.94). Of the final sample consisting of 295 participants, 174 (59%) students identified themselves as continuing-generation college students whereas 121 (41%) students identified as first-generation college students. The data were collected via an online survey and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. The results did not support the proposed differences between first-generation college students and continuing-generation college students in the moderated mediation model of help seeking. The inconsistent results between the present study and previous research may be attributable to sample size, diversity factors of samples, and/or timing of data collection. The results rendered some support for adding self-stigma as a modifying variable to the theory of planned behavior. The implications of the results in relation to research and practice are discussed.
Structure and Facilitation in Clinical Supervision when Clients Present with Varying Levels of Suicidal Risk
In this study, I investigated supervisory practices (i.e., structure and facilitation) when training therapists of differing levels of experience and self-efficacy are working with clients presenting with varying levels of suicidal risk (i.e., low or high). While previous research has supported that trainees need and want less structure and direction from their supervisors and become more self-efficacious as they gain more experience, this same assumption may not hold for crisis situations, such as when clients present with suicidal risk. To examine how trainees rate the quality of clinical supervision when working with clients presented with varying levels of suicidal risk, and how this may vary according to trainee experience level and trainee self-efficacy, an experimental design was used in which trainees read vignettes of pretend clients and supervisory sessions. It was hypothesized that quality ratings of supervision and client risk level, trainee experience level, and trainee self-efficacy would be moderated by the type of supervisory practice received. Results found significant main effects for trainee experience level, client risk level, and type of supervision received on supervision quality ratings, but no significant moderations. Clinical implications for supervisory practices and future directions for research are discussed.