Influence of goal climate on student motivation in an elementary school physical education class: an evaluation of gender differences, individual goal orientations, climate perceptions, and satisfaction.
The study was based on research done on the achievement goal theory. The purpose of the study was to discover if goal orientation would change after manipulation of the motivational climate. The study also was conducted to find if there was evidence of gender differences in motivational climate preference and satisfaction. These findings may help to provide a fun and motivating environment for all children in a physical activity setting. Investigators manipulated the climate to present lessons that were more task orientated in nature (mastery climate), and lessons that were more ego oriented in nature (performance climate). Participants consisted of girls and boys ages eight to ten years old (M = 9.5) recruited from a fourth grade P.E. class (n=42, females=20, males=22). The children participated in activities in a mastery and performance climate. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ), the Athlete in Sport Questionnaire (ASQ), and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire 2 (PMSQ-2) were administered. From the data it was concluded that there were no gender differences between baseline task and ego orientation scores. The children also did not perceive a performance climate after the performance climate intervention There were no gender differences in satisfaction following the mastery climate and the performance climate. The children's task and ego personal goal orientation scores on the PMCSQ-2 did not change following the mastery climate or the performance climate. There may be an absence of a gender difference in satisfaction and possessing either a task or ego orientation due to the factor of age. The student's regular PE coach enforces a mastery climate in their class, which may explain why the participants did not perceive a performance climate during the performance climate intervention. There were some methodological hurdles and problems in conducting the present study, which may account for the results.