Matching Items (22)

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The Effect of Age on Second Language Acquisition with Indirect Instruction

Description

This thesis covers second language acquisition in regards to age, examining the difference between elementary and high school students. The primary language of all the students tested was English. The

This thesis covers second language acquisition in regards to age, examining the difference between elementary and high school students. The primary language of all the students tested was English. The second language being tested in this study is German. The general age range in the elementary students observed was 7-12 years old. The high school students' ages were between 14-18 years old. The environment consisted of a physical education atmosphere, which includes: gyms, outside recreational areas, fitness equipment, fields, etc. Methods used to conduct this study were visual and auditory/verbal approaches. No direct instruction was provided to the students, they were assessed based on their ability to absorb the information when provided to them indirectly in a traditional classroom atmosphere. In addition, direct instruction is also not conducive to a physical education setting as it has the potential to detract from the necessary lesson content.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Influence of goal climate on student motivation in an elementary school physical education class: an evaluation of gender differences, individual goal orientations, climate perceptions, and satisfaction.

Description

The study was based on research done on the achievement goal theory. The purpose of the study was to discover if goal orientation would change after manipulation of the motivational

The study was based on research done on the achievement goal theory. The purpose of the study was to discover if goal orientation would change after manipulation of the motivational climate. The study also was conducted to find if there was evidence of gender differences in motivational climate preference and satisfaction. These findings may help to provide a fun and motivating environment for all children in a physical activity setting. Investigators manipulated the climate to present lessons that were more task orientated in nature (mastery climate), and lessons that were more ego oriented in nature (performance climate). Participants consisted of girls and boys ages eight to ten years old (M = 9.5) recruited from a fourth grade P.E. class (n=42, females=20, males=22). The children participated in activities in a mastery and performance climate. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ), the Athlete in Sport Questionnaire (ASQ), and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire 2 (PMSQ-2) were administered. From the data it was concluded that there were no gender differences between baseline task and ego orientation scores. The children also did not perceive a performance climate after the performance climate intervention There were no gender differences in satisfaction following the mastery climate and the performance climate. The children's task and ego personal goal orientation scores on the PMCSQ-2 did not change following the mastery climate or the performance climate. There may be an absence of a gender difference in satisfaction and possessing either a task or ego orientation due to the factor of age. The student's regular PE coach enforces a mastery climate in their class, which may explain why the participants did not perceive a performance climate during the performance climate intervention. There were some methodological hurdles and problems in conducting the present study, which may account for the results.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Association of objectively measured physical activity with cognitive function in black and white older adults: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

Description

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly

Background and purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) provides benefits for cognitive health and helps to improve or maintain quality of life among older adults. Objective PA measures have been increasingly used to overcome limitations of self-report measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of objectively measured PA and sedentary time with cognitive function among older adults.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the parent REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. ActicalTM accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables, including moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), high light PA (HLPA), low light PA (LLPA) and sedentary time, for 4-7 consecutive days. Prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment were defined by the Six-Item Screener. Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall) were conducted to assess executive function and memory.

Results: Of the 7,339 participants who provided accelerometer wear data > 4 days (70.1 ± 8.6 yr, 54.2% women, 31.7% African American), 320 participants exhibited impaired cognition. In cross-sectional analysis, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 39% lower odds of cognitive impairment than those in the lowest quartile (OR: 0.61, 95% C.I.: 0.39-0.95) after full adjustment. Further analysis shows most quartiles of MVPA% and HLPA% were significantly associated with executive function and memory (P<0.01). During 2.7 ± 0.5 years of follow-up, 3,385 participants were included in the longitudinal analysis, with 157 incident cases of cognitive impairment. After adjustments, participants in the highest MVPA% quartile had 51% lower hazards of cognitive impairment (HR: 0.49, 95% C.I.: 0.28-0.86). Additionally, MVPA% was inversely associated with change in memory z-scores (P<0.01), while the highest quartile of HLPA% was inversely associated with change in executive function and memory z-scores (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA% were independently associated with lower prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment, and better memory and executive function in older adults. Higher levels of HLPA% were also independently associated with better memory and executive function. The amount of MVPA associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment (259 min/week) is >70% higher than the minimal amount of MVPA recommended by PA guidelines.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Before-school running-walking club: effects on physical activity and on-task behavior

Description

Background: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health concerns in the United States and has been associated with low levels of physical activity. Schools are ideal physical

Background: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health concerns in the United States and has been associated with low levels of physical activity. Schools are ideal physical activity promotion sites but school physical activity opportunities have decreased due the increased focus on academic performance. Before-school programs provide a good opportunity for children to engage in physical activity as well as improve their readiness to learn. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a before-school running/walking club on children's physical activity and on-task behavior. Methods: Participants were third and fourth grade children from two schools in the Southwestern United States who participated in a before-school running/walking club that met two times each week. The study employed a two-phase experimental design with an initial baseline phase and an alternating treatments phase. Physical activity was monitored using pedometers and on-task behavior was assessed through systematic observation. Data analysis included visual analysis, descriptive statistics, as well as multilevel modeling. Results: Children accumulated substantial amounts of physical activity within the before-school program (School A: 1731 steps, 10:02 MVPA minutes; School B: 1502 steps, 8:30 MVPA minutes) and, on average, did not compensate by decreasing their physical activity during the rest of the school day. Further, on-task behavior was significantly higher on days the children attended the before-school program than on days they did not (School A=15.78%, pseudo-R2=.34 [strong effect]; School B=14.26%, pseudo-R2=.22 [moderate effect]). Discussion: Results provide evidence for the positive impact of before-school programs on children's physical activity and on-task behavior. Such programs do not take time away from academics and may be an attractive option for schools.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Measures of Effective Teaching: National Board Certification and Physical Education Teachers

Description

The non-profit National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) grew out of the belief that teachers were a key factor in improving student achievement and that the profession needed a

The non-profit National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) grew out of the belief that teachers were a key factor in improving student achievement and that the profession needed a way to recognize and reward exemplary classroom teachers. Over 100,000 teachers nationwide have achieved National Board Certification across all certificate areas, with approximately 1,800 of those in the area of Physical Education. Although National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) have been the subjects of several studies since the inception of NBPTS, very few have investigated the impact of National Board Certification (NBC) and Physical Education Teachers. This study examined the teaching effectiveness of NBCPETs and non-NBCPETs as they taught intact Physical Education classes with their own students. Participating teachers were provided with an experimental teaching unit (ETU) with a specific learning objective, but were free to plan and design the intended instruction. This study also examined the cognitive processes of NBCPETs and non-NBCPETs during interactive teaching. Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE), the System for Observing Fitness Instructional Time (SOFIT), stimulated-recall interviews, and document analysis were utilized for data collection. Pre- and post-tests on the ETU specific learning objective were conducted to determine student learning and three lessons were videotaped and used in subsequent analysis. Stimulated recall interviews were conducted following each lesson, lasting between 5 to 15 minutes. Themes that emerged from the stimulated-recall interviews across all teachers included: 1) building on past skills, 2) modifications to increase physical activity, and 3) goal-directed instruction. In addition, there is no difference between the amount of time students of NBCPETs engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as compared to students of non-NBCPETs. Similarly, students of non-NBCPETs are provided the same amount of motor activity at an appropriate success rate (ALT-PE) as students of NBCPETs. Lastly, the results showed no difference in gain scores of the learning objectives between the two groups of teachers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Physical activity patterns and school aged children perceptions of after school programs

Description

With many students of all ages attending after school programs (APSs) where there are a variety of program specific goals, this study examined the physical activity (PA) patterns of youth

With many students of all ages attending after school programs (APSs) where there are a variety of program specific goals, this study examined the physical activity (PA) patterns of youth and teens attending afterschool programs as well as their physical activity during the school week. The first phase of the study used a validated observational instrument System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY) to record PA data and contextual aspects. Data was analyzed using cross-tabulations, chi-square test, and a table created to understand moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels and contextual variables of the ASP. Findings suggest both girls and boys engaged in MVPA in environments built for play, while the mean percentage of girls engaged in MVPA was less than boys regardless of activity area. The second phase of the study used a survey comprised of two self-administered instruments. The first section used the Middle School Health Behavior Survey (MSHBS), which has been previously validated to record youth and teens PA behaviors during the past school week inside and outside of school. The second portion of the survey asked youth and teens about PA participation, leisure time, perceptions of the after school program, and choices within the after school program using the validated Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS). Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics to calculate and summarize data within and across both groups. Results showed more than half of youth and teens surveyed were active in some form during the past week regardless of being in school or outside of school, approximately less than a third are in front of a television or computer for less than an hour, and the favorite part of the ASP to youth and teens was the Gym and Friends respectively.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Maintaining hózhó: perceptions of physical activity, physical education and healthy living among Navajo high school students

Description

ABSTRACT

Native American populations have higher obesity and diabetes rates overall in the U.S. Percentages of obesity among Native American children were 11-25% higher than the national average. Among Navajo, cultural

ABSTRACT

Native American populations have higher obesity and diabetes rates overall in the U.S. Percentages of obesity among Native American children were 11-25% higher than the national average. Among Navajo, cultural lifestyles changes have led to less physical activity and obesity problems with youth more disassociated from traditional Navajo living, culture, beliefs, language and religion. They were at highest risk for Type II diabetes among ethnic groups due to less physically activity, increased weight gain and obesity.

This study had dual purposes: Part one of this study was to examined the perceptions of physical activity, physical education and living healthy lifestyles of Navajo adolescents, physical educators, a Navajo culture teacher, a Diné studies teacher and a community member. Part two of this study examined the physical activity patterns of Navajo adolescent students. To gain their perspectives, eight Navajo students (9-12 grades), two physical educators, two classroom teachers and one community member were recruited and interviewed individually for 60-minutes. Secondly, pedometers were used to assess the students’ physical activity levels during the school day and 24-hour increments.

Results of the part one study indicated important aspects of physical activity by Navajo adolescents, physical education teachers, classroom teachers and a community member were cultural identity, family involvement, and structure of family/extended family. Navajo respondents participated in traditional form of running in the morning, a practice performed by parents and/or extended family. Physical activity was described as active involvement of the body, movement, physical fitness, and sport related interests. Stakeholders described physical activity and healthy living as culturally driven beliefs and learning based on Navajo way of life.

Findings of part two study indicated that boys were significantly more physically active on weekday than girls t(32)=2.04, p=<.05. Weekday step counts for boys indicated (M=11,078, SD= 4,399) and for girls (M=7,567, SD=5,613). Girls were significantly more active on weekend t(27)=2.30,p=.03. Weekend step counts indicated boys and girls accumulated (M=6493, SD=5650) and (M=7589, SD=5614) steps. Physical education step counts showed minimal differences between boys (M=2203, SD=918) and girls (M=1939, SD=889) step counts. Overall results indicate that Navajo adolescents did not meet daily physical activity recommendations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Looking Inward: Does physical Activity Promotion Training Transfer Beyond PETE?

Description

Whole school physical activity (PA) programming provides additional PA opportunities at school beyond Physical Education. Physical Educators often absorb the additional responsibilities of leading such programs, resulting in some Physical

Whole school physical activity (PA) programming provides additional PA opportunities at school beyond Physical Education. Physical Educators often absorb the additional responsibilities of leading such programs, resulting in some Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs adopting expanded PA programming and integrating related topics into their curriculum. The Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) is of interest to the present study as it focuses on Quality Physical Education and is the model utilized at the institution of interest.

Arizona State University’s PETE program began integrating CSPAP concepts in 2009 and serves as the focal program for this study. The purpose of this study, which was informed by The Diffusion of Innovations and the Teacher Socialization Theories, was to determine the degree to which graduates integrate PA programming into their own K-12 schools. In a two-phase (electronic survey followed by campus visit and interview with sub-sample), mixed methods’ approach, 101 graduates (between the years of 2000-2019) of Arizona State University’s PETE program provided details of their current practices related to expanded PA.

Results: Quantitative findings included weak but positive relationships between year of graduation and knowledge of CSPAP and having positive perceptions of expanded PA as an innovation. Bachelors’ graduates reported higher PA integration than Masters’ graduates. Visual inspection of data shows a slight increase in perceptions of expanded PA as an innovation and a slight decrease in PA programming integration across years of graduation. Interviews provided evidence that more recent graduates may still be figuring out their roles, delaying their PA program. Increased perceptions scores suggest the PETE program at ASU has been successful in providing students positive interactions with expanded PA programming. Graduates indicated they felt well prepared with strategies and resources for promoting and maintaining such programs, but they noted a need for more exposure to tools for initiating a new program. Findings can inform changes in the ASU PETE program and may be applicable in other settings. Establishing ongoing contact with graduates to provide marketing and support tools graduates can access may be beneficial as teachers often realize the need for these materials well beyond graduation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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The Effects of Mobile App Technology on Technique and Game Performance in Physical Education

Description

Informed by Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM), Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework, and Model for Learning With Digital Video, this project assessed: (a) the effects of mobile application (App) technology

Informed by Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM), Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework, and Model for Learning With Digital Video, this project assessed: (a) the effects of mobile application (App) technology on students’ skill and game play development during a badminton sport education season and (b) a physical education teacher and students’ perceptions about the use of the App technology. Two eighth grade classes participated in the study (the teacher only used the App in Class A; students used the App in Class B). The Poole forehand overhead clear shot skill test, game performance assessment instrument (GPAI), and opportunity to respond (OTR) observation tool were used to measure skill development and game improvement in the first study. Students’ practices and game play performance were recorded. Critical incident sheets, the teacher’s daily reflections, and interviews with the teacher were used in second study. In the first study, students in both intervention classes, regardless of the App use condition (i.e., teacher vs students), improved in the clear shot skill, tactical dimensions of their game performance (i.e., skill execution, decision-making, and base position), and opportunities to respond rates (i.e., success and acceptability). In the second study, there was evidence that a physical education teacher can effectively integrate the use of a motion analysis App and complement his instructional skills during regular instruction in a middle school badminton context. Also, it was evident that the App provided students with active learning opportunities through instant feedback on skill and game performance. Further research on the use of such App technologies should focus on: (a) how the App technology can be innovative to foster student learning in game play in Physical Education settings and (b) how teachers understand the use of technology along with their pedagogical skills.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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The Fitness Tourist: Goal Content of Exercisers in the Wellness Tourism Industry

Description

The fitness and wellness industry is expanding at a rapid pace, and part of this expansion includes wellness tourism. Within wellness tourism, fitness related activities and programs are sought by

The fitness and wellness industry is expanding at a rapid pace, and part of this expansion includes wellness tourism. Within wellness tourism, fitness related activities and programs are sought by wellness tourists or more specifically, fitness tourists. Wellness tourism is defined as a journey by people whose motive, in whole or in part, is to maintain or promote their well-being, and who stay at least one night at a facility that is designed to enable and enhance physical, psychological, spiritual and/or social well-being. Inevitably, fitness related activities are offered within wellness tourism, and seem to attract these fitness tourists.

The purpose of this study is two-fold. It is first to examine the goal content fitness tourists possess in this non-traditional exercise context. Second, this study aims to examine the goal pursuits within the promotional content produced by the wellness tourism industry. This study is informed by goal content theory (GCT) which is a mini-theory within self-determination theory (SDT). Developed by Kasser and Ryan (1996), GCT examines how goals pursued by individuals, in this case fitness tourists, whether related to extrinsic or intrinsic content, account for variations in wellness. Extrinsic goals include elements like wealth and appearance, while intrinsic goals include dimensions like community contribution and health management.

Participants were targeted through their consumption of fitness services at wellness tourism resorts in the southwestern United States. The goal content for exercise questionnaire (GCEQ) was distributed to these targeted participants to determine the types of exercisers, intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, who are consuming these services. Additionally, a content analysis was conducted to examine the elements portrayed by the industry within a fitness context. Understanding goal content can allow organizations to create programs supportive of participants’ autonomous motivations which research suggests lead to higher levels of well-being. Using a sample of 100 GCEQs, the study implies fitness tourists are more likely to be white, high income females with stronger intrinsic goal content. Health management, image, and skill development were among the highest ranked goals. A total of 182 images were examined in addition to extensive narrative content on the webpages of these sites suggesting this industry promotes holistic wellness rather than appearance. The results of this study should be used to program physical activity interventions made accessible to low and middle class individuals.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017