Matching Items (10)

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Amino Acid Templated Gold Nanoparticles as Sensors of Ionizing Radiation

Description

This research addresses the need for improvement in radiation sensors for applications of ionizing radiation such as radiotherapy. The current sensors involved are polymer gel dosimeters, MOSFETs, radio-chromic films, etc.

This research addresses the need for improvement in radiation sensors for applications of ionizing radiation such as radiotherapy. The current sensors involved are polymer gel dosimeters, MOSFETs, radio-chromic films, etc. Most of the sensors involved require expensive equipment's and processing facilities for readout. There is still a need to develop better sensors that can be clinically applied. There are numerous groups around the world trying to conceive a better dosimeter. One of the radiation sensors that was developed recently was based on fluorescence signal emitted from the sensor. To advance the field of radiation sensors, a visual indicator has been developed in-lab as a method of detect ionizing radiation. The intensity of change in color is directly dependent on the amount of incident ionizing radiation. An aqueous gold nanoparticle sensor can be used to accurately determine the incident amount of ionizing radiation1. A gold nanoparticle sensor has been developed in lab with the use of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) as the templating molecule. In the presence of ionizing radiation, the colorless gold salt is reduced and templated, creating a dispersion within the fluid1. The formation of suspended nanoparticles leads to a color change that can be visually detected and accurately analyzed through the employment of a spectrometer. Unfortunately, the toxicity of C16TAB is high. It is expected the toxicity can be reduced by replacing C16TAB with an amino acid, as amino acids can act as templating molecules in the solution and many are naturally occuring2. The experiments included a screening of 20 natural amino acids and 12 unnatural amino acids with the gold salt solution in the presence of ionizing radiation. Stability and absorbance testing was conducted on the amino acid sensors. Additional screening of lead amino acid sensors at various concentrations of irradiation was conducted.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Development of novel sensor devices for total ionization dose detection

Description

Total dose sensing systems (or radiation detection systems) have many applications,

ranging from survey monitors used to supervise the generated radioactive waste at

nuclear power plants to personal dosimeters which measure the

Total dose sensing systems (or radiation detection systems) have many applications,

ranging from survey monitors used to supervise the generated radioactive waste at

nuclear power plants to personal dosimeters which measure the radiation dose

accumulated in individuals. This dissertation work will present two different types of

novel devices developed at Arizona State University for total dose sensing applications.

The first detector technology is a mechanically flexible metal-chalcogenide glass (ChG)

based system which is fabricated on low cost substrates and are intended as disposable

total dose sensors. Compared to existing commercial technologies, these thin film

radiation sensors are simpler in form and function, and cheaper to produce and operate.

The sensors measure dose through resistance change and are suitable for applications

such as reactor dosimetry, radiation chemistry, and clinical dosimetry. They are ideal for

wearable devices due to the lightweight construction, inherent robustness to resist

breaking when mechanically stressed, and ability to attach to non-flat objects. Moreover,

their performance can be easily controlled by tuning design variables and changing

incorporated materials. The second detector technology is a wireless dosimeter intended

for remote total dose sensing. They are based on a capacitively loaded folded patch

antenna resonating in the range of 3 GHz to 8 GHz for which the load capacitance varies

as a function of total dose. The dosimeter does not need power to operate thus enabling

its use and implementation in the field without requiring a battery for its read-out. As a

result, the dosimeter is suitable for applications such as unattended detection systems

destined for covert monitoring of merchandise crossing borders, where nuclear material

tracking is a concern. The sensitive element can be any device exhibiting a known

variation of capacitance with total ionizing dose. The sensitivity of the dosimeter is

related to the capacitance variation of the radiation sensitive device as well as the high

frequency system used for reading. Both technologies come with the advantage that they

are easy to manufacture with reasonably low cost and sensing can be readily read-out.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Generation of macromolecule-templated gold nanoparticles by ionizing radiation

Description

Ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and X-rays, are becoming more widely used. These high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation are present in nuclear energy, astrophysics, and the medical field. As

Ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and X-rays, are becoming more widely used. These high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation are present in nuclear energy, astrophysics, and the medical field. As more and more people have the opportunity to be exposed to ionizing radiation, the necessity for coming up with simple and quick methods of radiation detection is increasing. In this work, two systems were explored for their ability to simply detect ionizing radiation. Gold nanoparticles were formed via radiolysis of water in the presence of Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) and also in the presence of cationic polymers. Gold nanoparticle formation is an indicator of the presence of radiation. The system with ELP was split into two subsystems: those samples including isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and acetone, and those without IPA and acetone. The samples were exposed to certain radiation doses and gold nanoparticles were formed. Gold nanoparticle formation was deemed to have occurred when the sample changed color from light yellow to a red or purple color. Nanoparticle formation was also checked by absorbance measurements. In the cationic polymer system, gold nanoparticles were also formed after exposing the experimental system to certain radiation doses. Unique to the polymer system was the ability of some of the cationic polymers to form gold nanoparticles without the samples being irradiated. Future work to be done on this project is further characterization of the gold nanoparticles formed by both systems.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The evolution of escaping ionizing radiation from galaxies and active galactic nuclei through cosmic time

Description

Reionization is the phase transition of intergalactic atoms from being neutral to

becoming fully ionized. This process began ∼400 Myr after the Big Bang, when the first

stars and black holes began

Reionization is the phase transition of intergalactic atoms from being neutral to

becoming fully ionized. This process began ∼400 Myr after the Big Bang, when the first

stars and black holes began emitting ionizing radiation from stellar photospheres and

accretion disks. Reionization completed when all of the neutral matter between galaxies

became ionized ∼1 Gyr after the Big Bang, and the Universe became transparent as

it is today.

Characteristics of the galaxies that drove reionization are mostly unknown. The

physical mechanisms that create ionizing radiation inside these galaxies, and the

paths for this light to escape are even more unclear. To date, only a small fraction of

the numerous searches for this escaping light have been able to detect a faint signal

from distant galaxies, and no consensus on how Reionization was completed has been

established.

In this dissertation, I discuss the evolution of the atomic matter between galaxies

from its initially ionized state, to its current re-ionized state, potential sources of

re-ionizing energy, and the theoretical and observational status of the characteristics of

these sources. I also present new constraints on what fraction of the ionizing radiation

escapes from galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope UV imaging, theoretical models

of the stellar and accretion disk radiation, and models of the absorption of ionizing

radiation by the intergalactic medium.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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SST SuperFlash modeling and simulation under ionizing radiation

Description

Flash memories are critical for embedded devices to operate properly but are susceptible to radiation effects, which make flash memory a key factor to improve the reliability of circuitry. This

Flash memories are critical for embedded devices to operate properly but are susceptible to radiation effects, which make flash memory a key factor to improve the reliability of circuitry. This thesis describes the simulation techniques used to analyze and predict total ionizing dose (TID) effects on 90-nm technology Silicon Storage Technology (SST) SuperFlash Generation 3 devices. Silvaco Atlas is used for both device level design and simulation purposes.

The simulations consist of no radiation and radiation modeling. The no radiation modeling details the cell structure development and characterizes basic operations (read, erase and program) of a flash memory cell. The program time is observed to be approximately 10 μs while the erase time is approximately 0.1 ms.

The radiation modeling uses the fixed oxide charge method to analyze the TID effects on the same flash memory cell. After irradiation, a threshold voltage shift of the flash memory cell is observed. The threshold voltages of a programmed cell and an erased cell are reduced at an average rate of 0.025 V/krad.

The use of simulation techniques allows designers to better understand the TID response of a SST flash memory cell and to predict cell level TID effects without performing the costly in-situ irradiation experiments. The simulation and experimental results agree qualitatively. In particular, simulation results reveal that ‘0’ to ‘1’ errors but not ‘1’ to ‘0’ retention errors occur; likewise, ‘0’ to ‘1’ errors dominate experimental testing, which also includes circuitry effects that can cause ‘1’ to ‘0’ failures. Both simulation and experimental results reveal flash memory cell TID resilience to about 200 krad.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Retention of programmable metallization cells during ionizing radiation exposure

Description

Non-volatile memory (NVM) has become a staple in the everyday life of consumers. NVM manifests inside cell phones, laptops, and most recently, wearable tech such as smart watches. NAND Flash

Non-volatile memory (NVM) has become a staple in the everyday life of consumers. NVM manifests inside cell phones, laptops, and most recently, wearable tech such as smart watches. NAND Flash has been an excellent solution to conditions requiring fast, compact NVM. Current technology nodes are nearing the physical limits of scaling, preventing flash from improving. To combat the limitations of flash and to appease consumer demand for progressively faster and denser NVM, new technologies are needed. One possible candidate for the replacement of NAND Flash is programmable metallization cells (PMC). PMC are a type of resistive memory, meaning that they do not rely on charge storage to maintain a logic state. Depending on their application, it is possible that devices containing NVM will be exposed to harsh radiation environments. As part of the process for developing a novel memory technology, it is important to characterize the effects irradiation has on the functionality of the devices.

This thesis characterizes the effects that ionizing γ-ray irradiation has on the retention of the programmed resistive state of a PMC. The PMC devices tested used Ge30Se70 doped with Ag as the solid electrolyte layer and were fabricated by the thesis author in a Class 100 clean room. Individual device tiles were wire bonded into ceramic packages and tested in a biased and floating contact scenario.

The first scenario presented shows that PMC devices are capable of retaining their programmed state up to the maximum exposed total ionizing dose (TID) of 3.1 Mrad(Si). In this first scenario, the contacts of the PMC devices were left floating during exposure. The second scenario tested shows that the PMC devices are capable of retaining their state until the maximum TID of 10.1 Mrad(Si) was reached. The contacts in the second scenario were biased, with a 50 mV read voltage applied to the anode contact. Analysis of the results show that Ge30Se70 PMC are ionizing radiation tolerant and can retain a programmed state to a higher TID than NAND Flash memory.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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MEMS harsh environment sensors for earth and space exploration

Description

Harsh environments have conditions that make collecting scientific data difficult with existing commercial-off-the-shelf technology. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is ideally suited for harsh environment characterization and operation due

Harsh environments have conditions that make collecting scientific data difficult with existing commercial-off-the-shelf technology. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is ideally suited for harsh environment characterization and operation due to the wide range of materials available and an incredible array of different sensing techniques while providing small device size, low power consumption, and robustness. There were two main objectives of the research conducted. The first objective was to design, fabricate, and test novel sensors that measure the amount of exposure to ionizing radiation for a wide range of applications including characterization of harsh environments. Two types of MEMS ionizing radiation dosimeters were developed. The first sensor was a passive radiation-sensitive capacitor-antenna design. The antenna's emitted frequency of peak-intensity changed as exposure time to radiation increased. The second sensor was a film bulk acoustic-wave resonator, whose resonant frequency decreased with increasing ionizing radiation exposure time. The second objective was to develop MEMS sensor systems that could be deployed to gather scientific data and to use that data to address the following research question: do temperature and/or conductivity predict the appearance of photosynthetic organisms in hot springs. To this end, temperature and electrical conductivity sensor arrays were designed and fabricated based on mature MEMS technology. Electronic circuits and the software interface to the electronics were developed for field data collection. The sensor arrays utilized in the hot springs yielded results that support the hypothesis that temperature plays a key role in determining where the photosynthetic organisms occur. Additionally, a cold-film fluidic flow sensor was developed, which is suitable for near-boiling temperature measurement. Future research should focus on (1) developing a MEMS pH sensor array with integrated temperature, conductivity, and flow sensors to provide multi-dimensional data for scientific study and (2) finding solutions to biofouling and self-calibration, which affects sensor performance over long-term deployment.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Separating radiation and thermal effects on lateral PNP bipolar junction transistors operating in the space environment

Description

Radiation-induced gain degradation in bipolar devices is considered to be the primary threat to linear bipolar circuits operating in the space environment. The damage is primarily caused by charged particles

Radiation-induced gain degradation in bipolar devices is considered to be the primary threat to linear bipolar circuits operating in the space environment. The damage is primarily caused by charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetosphere, the solar wind, and cosmic rays. This constant radiation exposure leads to early end-of-life expectancies for many electronic parts. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the density of oxide and interfacial defects in bipolar oxides leading to an increase in base current in bipolar junction transistors. Radiation-induced excess base current is the primary cause of current gain degradation. Analysis of base current response can enable the measurement of defects generated by radiation exposure. In addition to radiation, the space environment is also characterized by extreme temperature fluctuations. Temperature, like radiation, also has a very strong impact on base current. Thus, a technique for separating the effects of radiation from thermal effects is necessary in order to accurately measure radiation-induced damage in space. This thesis focuses on the extraction of radiation damage in lateral PNP bipolar junction transistors and the space environment. It also describes the measurement techniques used and provides a quantitative analysis methodology for separating radiation and thermal effects on the bipolar base current.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Modeling and simulation of ionizing radiation effects in pipeline analog to digital converters

Description

Low Power, High Speed Analog to Digital Converters continues to remain one of the major building blocks for modern communication systems. Due to continuing trend of the aggressive scaling of

Low Power, High Speed Analog to Digital Converters continues to remain one of the major building blocks for modern communication systems. Due to continuing trend of the aggressive scaling of the MOS devices, the susceptibility of most of the deep-sub micron CMOS technologies to the ionizing radiation has decreased over the period of time. When electronic circuits fabricated in these CMOS technologies are exposed to ionizing radiations, considerable change in the performance of circuits can be seen over a period of time. The change in the performance can be quantified in terms of decreasing linearity of the circuit which directly relates to the resolution of the circuit. Analog to Digital Converter is one of the most critical blocks of any electronic circuitry sent to space. The degradation in the performance of an Analog to Digital Converter due to radiation effects can jeopardize many research programs related to space. These radiation effects can completely hamper the working of a circuit. This thesis discusses the effects of Ionizing radiation on an 11 bit 325 MSPS pipeline ADC. The ADC is exposed to different doses of radiation and performance is compared.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Modeling of total ionizing dose effects in advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technologies

Description

The increased use of commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies in harsh radiation environments has resulted in a new approach to radiation effects mitigation. This approach utilizes simulation to support the

The increased use of commercial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies in harsh radiation environments has resulted in a new approach to radiation effects mitigation. This approach utilizes simulation to support the design of integrated circuits (ICs) to meet targeted tolerance specifications. Modeling the deleterious impact of ionizing radiation on ICs fabricated in advanced CMOS technologies requires understanding and analyzing the basic mechanisms that result in buildup of radiation-induced defects in specific sensitive regions. Extensive experimental studies have demonstrated that the sensitive regions are shallow trench isolation (STI) oxides. Nevertheless, very little work has been done to model the physical mechanisms that result in the buildup of radiation-induced defects and the radiation response of devices fabricated in these technologies. A comprehensive study of the physical mechanisms contributing to the buildup of radiation-induced oxide trapped charges and the generation of interface traps in advanced CMOS devices is presented in this dissertation. The basic mechanisms contributing to the buildup of radiation-induced defects are explored using a physical model that utilizes kinetic equations that captures total ionizing dose (TID) and dose rate effects in silicon dioxide (SiO2). These mechanisms are formulated into analytical models that calculate oxide trapped charge density (Not) and interface trap density (Nit) in sensitive regions of deep-submicron devices. Experiments performed on field-oxide-field-effect-transistors (FOXFETs) and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors permit investigating TID effects and provide a comparison for the radiation response of advanced CMOS devices. When used in conjunction with closed-form expressions for surface potential, the analytical models enable an accurate description of radiation-induced degradation of transistor electrical characteristics. In this dissertation, the incorporation of TID effects in advanced CMOS devices into surface potential based compact models is also presented. The incorporation of TID effects into surface potential based compact models is accomplished through modifications of the corresponding surface potential equations (SPE), allowing the inclusion of radiation-induced defects (i.e., Not and Nit) into the calculations of surface potential. Verification of the compact modeling approach is achieved via comparison with experimental data obtained from FOXFETs fabricated in a 90 nm low-standby power commercial bulk CMOS technology and numerical simulations of fully-depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-channel transistors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011