Matching Items (9)

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Effect of splinting techniques on the correction of hand deformities: a scoping review

Description

The purpose of this paper was to systematically review current literature regarding the effect of hand splints on aesthetic outcomes for individuals with acquired hand deformities. Hand splints vary in

The purpose of this paper was to systematically review current literature regarding the effect of hand splints on aesthetic outcomes for individuals with acquired hand deformities. Hand splints vary in form and function, and are used to maintain or ameliorate hand function and aesthetics. A literature search was performed on peer-reviewed publications that used splinting as an intervention for conservative hand improvement. Evidence from ten randomized clinical trials (published from 2003 to 2015) was evaluated for aesthetic improvement among a total of 659 subjects. Cosmetic outcomes were analyzed by a change in angle measurements, such as extensor lag, ulnar deviation, and passive and active range of motion. Of these ten studies, five focused on hand deformities caused by neurological impairment, while the other five measured those with musculoskeletal complications. Only two of the ten studies concluded that splinting could aesthetically improve the hands, and only one of these reporting statistical significance in its data. The data was not only limited in quantity, but was presented in heterogeneous formats. There was an extensive variation in measured outcomes, intervention protocols, follow-up times, and many other aspects of the studies; this dissimilarity led to difficulty in performing a systematic assessment. The majority of evidence concludes that splinting does not improve the appearance of deformities, however none directly investigated this measure. Therefore, further RCTs that include measurements of cosmetic traits are necessary to better quantify the effect of splinting for management of hand deformities. This review was the first of its kind to evaluate the correction of hand deformities using splints as an intervention.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Toward Differentiating Between Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Strokes Using Microwave Tomography

Description

Microwave tomography (MWT) differs from the current forms of biomedical imaging modalities by measuring the dielectric properties in different tissues in order to create an image of the object under

Microwave tomography (MWT) differs from the current forms of biomedical imaging modalities by measuring the dielectric properties in different tissues in order to create an image of the object under evaluation. This technology could be harnessed for the evaluation of a stroke because the areas of the brain that are not being provided oxygen will have a reduced concentration of blood, leading to a reduced relative permittivity (also referred to as dielectric constant). Strokes themselves require accurate diagnosis for proper treatment to be administered. Microwave tomography offers advantages of stroke diagnosis over imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT). Like MRIs, microwave tomography passes only non-ionizing radiation through the patient, allowing for multiple safe scans. Because MWT requires only an array of antennas sending a non-ionizing electromagnetic field, which is on the level of the fields sent in cell phones, a patient undergoing a stroke could be diagnosed inside an ambulance with multiple MWT scans, greatly reducing the time before treatment. The challenge for this thesis is to correctly solve an ill-posed problem presented in a microwave tomography system and output an image of the object's electrical properties. The system itself is an inverse problem because the object to be imaged and its properties are unknown. Rather, the incident field and resulting scattered field due to interaction with the object of interest are known. To achieve a unique solution for this problem, a software implementation of a common microwave inversion method known as Born's Iterative Method is realized through MATLAB.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy on Inhibition in Stroke Survivors

Description

Executive function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors because it is critical to everyday tasks (e.g., driving, cooking, etc.). An innovative way to improve executive

Executive function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors because it is critical to everyday tasks (e.g., driving, cooking, etc.). An innovative way to improve executive function may be Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT). This is among the first studies to use a Stroop task to measure inhibition, selective attention, and information processing speed following ACT in stroke survivors. Twenty-three participants post-stroke performed ACT, voluntary cycling (VC) and no cycling (NC). The results showed that there were improvements in the Stroop task following an acute session of ACT but not following VC or NC. These results suggest that ACT resulted in increased afferent information which may have resulted in increased arousal and excitability in regions of the prefrontal cortex. These factors have been shown to improve executive function.

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  • 2017-05

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Effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Upper Extremity Function and Dexterity in Stroke Survivors

Description

Upper extremity function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors. An innovative way to improve upper extremity function has been shown with Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT).

Upper extremity function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors. An innovative way to improve upper extremity function has been shown with Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT). This is among the first study to examine ACT in stroke survivors. 13 stroke survivors performed ACT, VC, and NC and pre and post measures of upper extremity function were conducted with the box and blocks test (BBT). The results showed that non-paretic upper extremity improved its function after ACT and VC, but not after NC. For the paretic arm, while the results did not reach conventional levels of significance, improvements in upper extremity function following ACT more so than VC or NC. These results were interpreted to suggest that ACT resulted in increased production of BDNF in the motor cortex, which resulted in improvements in global motor function.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Detection of Muscle Specific EMG Signals in Post Stroke Patients

Description

Electromyography (EMG) is an extremely useful tool in extracting control signals from the human body. Needle electromyography is the current standard for obtaining superior quality muscle signals and obtaining signals

Electromyography (EMG) is an extremely useful tool in extracting control signals from the human body. Needle electromyography is the current standard for obtaining superior quality muscle signals and obtaining signals corresponding to individual muscles. However, needle EMG faces many problems when converting from the laboratory to marketable devices, specifically in home devices. Many patients have issues with needles and the extra care required of needle EMG is prohibitive. Therefore, a surface EMG device that can obtain clear signals from individual muscles would be valuable to many markets in the development of next generation in home devices. Here, signals from surface EMG were analyzed using a low noise EMG evaluation system (RHD 2000; Intan Technologies). The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was calculated using MatLab. The average SNR is 4.447 for the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris, and 7.369 for the Extensor Digitorum Communis. Spectral analysis was performed using the Welch approach in MatLab. The power spectrum indicated that low frequency signals dominate the EMG of small hand muscles. Also, harmonic bands of 60Hz noise were present as part of the signal which should be accounted for with filters in future iterations of the testing method. Provided is evidence that strong, independent signals were acquired and could be used in further application of surface EMG corresponding to lifting of the fingers.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Variable Stiffness Treadmill (VST): Design, Development, and Implementation of a Novel Tool for the Investigation of Human Gait

Description

The generation of walking motion is one of the most vital functions of the human body because it allows us to be mobile in our environment. Unfortunately, numerous individuals suffer

The generation of walking motion is one of the most vital functions of the human body because it allows us to be mobile in our environment. Unfortunately, numerous individuals suffer from gait impairment as a result of debilitating conditions like stroke, resulting in a serious loss of mobility. Our understanding of human gait is limited by the amount of research we conduct in relation to human walking mechanisms and their characteristics. In order to better understand these characteristics and the systems involved in the generation of human gait, it is necessary to increase the depth and range of research pertaining to walking motion. Specifically, there has been a lack of investigation into a particular area of human gait research that could potentially yield interesting conclusions about gait rehabilitation, which is the effect of surface stiffness on human gait. In order to investigate this idea, a number of studies have been conducted using experimental devices that focus on changing surface stiffness; however, these systems lack certain functionality that would be useful in an experimental scenario. To solve this problem and to investigate the effect of surface stiffness further, a system has been developed called the Variable Stiffness Treadmill system (VST). This treadmill system is a unique investigative tool that allows for the active control of surface stiffness. What is novel about this system is its ability to change the stiffness of the surface quickly, accurately, during the gait cycle, and throughout a large range of possible stiffness values. This type of functionality in an experimental system has never been implemented and constitutes a tremendous opportunity for valuable gait research in regard to the influence of surface stiffness. In this work, the design, development, and implementation of the Variable Stiffness Treadmill system is presented and discussed along with preliminary experimentation. The results from characterization testing demonstrate highly accurate stiffness control and excellent response characteristics for specific configurations. Initial indications from human experimental trials in relation to quantifiable effects from surface stiffness variation using the Variable Stiffness Treadmill system are encouraging.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Does high intensity interval treadmill walking improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors?

Description

This study examined upper extremity function, including manual dexterity, in chronic stroke survivors following a 10-week high intensity interval treadmill walking intervention. Six stroke survivors completed two 35-minute high intensity

This study examined upper extremity function, including manual dexterity, in chronic stroke survivors following a 10-week high intensity interval treadmill walking intervention. Six stroke survivors completed two 35-minute high intensity interval treadmill walking sessions based on ventilatory threshold per week. In addition, each participant completed one 30-minute low-intensity walking session at home. Participants completed upper extremity and manual dexterity testing at baseline, acutely, and after the 10-week intervention. Contrary to the prediction made, significant improvements in both paretic and non-paretic upper-extremity function including manual dexterity were not found. While time to complete the Nine Hole Peg Test (9HPB) somewhat decreased and the number of blocks transferred in the Box and Blocks Test (BBT) slightly increased, results were not found to be statistically significant. The results do suggest, nonetheless, that high intensity interval treadmill training may lead to improvements in upper extremity function and potentially daily living in chronic stroke survivors.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Applying Industrial Engineering to Optimize Swim Stroke Economy

Description

The U.S. Navy and other amphibious military organizations utilize a derivation of the traditional side stroke called the Combat Side Stroke, or CSS, and tout it as the most efficient

The U.S. Navy and other amphibious military organizations utilize a derivation of the traditional side stroke called the Combat Side Stroke, or CSS, and tout it as the most efficient technique available. Citing its low aerobic requirements and slow yet powerful movements as superior to the traditionally-best front crawl (freestyle), the CSS is the go-to stroke for any operation in the water. The purpose of this thesis is to apply principles of Industrial Engineering to a real-world situation not typically approached from a perspective of optimization. I will analyze pre-existing data about various swim strokes in order to compare them in terms of efficiency for different variables. These variables include calories burned, speed, and strokes per unit distance, as well as their interactions. Calories will be measured by heart rate monitors, converting BPM to calories burned. Speed will be measured by stopwatch and observer. Strokes per unit distance will be measured by observer. The strokes to be analyzed include the breast stroke, crawl stroke, butterfly, and combat side stroke. The goal is to informally test the U.S. Navy's claim that the combat side stroke is the optimum stroke to conserve energy while covering distance. Because of limitations in the scope of the project, analysis will be done using data collected from literary sources rather than through experimentation. This thesis will include a design of experiment to test the findings here in practical study. The main method of analysis will be linear programming, followed by hypothesis testing, culminating in a design of experiment for future progress on this topic.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Current joint action problems and solutions in robotics-based stroke upper limb rehabilitation

Description

Robotic rehabilitation for upper limb post-stroke recovery is a developing technology. However, there are major issues in the implementation of this type of rehabilitation, issues which decrease efficacy. Two of

Robotic rehabilitation for upper limb post-stroke recovery is a developing technology. However, there are major issues in the implementation of this type of rehabilitation, issues which decrease efficacy. Two of the major solutions currently being explored to the upper limb post-stroke rehabilitation problem are the use of socially assistive rehabilitative robots, robots which directly interact with patients, and the use of exoskeleton-based systems of rehabilitation. While there is great promise in both of these techniques, they currently lack sufficient efficacy to objectively justify their costs. The overall efficacy to both of these techniques is about the same as conventional therapy, yet each has higher overhead costs that conventional therapy does. However there are associated long-term cost savings in each case, meaning that the actual current viability of either of these techniques is somewhat nebulous. In both cases, the problems which decrease technique viability are largely related to joint action, the interaction between robot and human in completing specific tasks, and issues in robot adaptability that make joint action difficult. As such, the largest part of current research into rehabilitative robotics aims to make robots behave in more "human-like" manners or to bypass the joint action problem entirely.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05