Matching Items (7)

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Degradation of gas-phase ethanol using TiO2 photocatalyst

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TiO2 has been studied in the degradation of ethanol for indoor application. A dynamic flowing non-loop system was utilized. The reactor was a quartz tube filled with the TiO2 catalyst

TiO2 has been studied in the degradation of ethanol for indoor application. A dynamic flowing non-loop system was utilized. The reactor was a quartz tube filled with the TiO2 catalyst with glass wool on the ends. The analytical equipment used were Vernier's ethanol and CO2 sensors with a two-point calibration performed on the ethanol sensor. The purpose of the calibration was to create a known standard to establish accurate readings. The experimental procedure followed the scheme of bypassing the reactor, flowing into the reactor without the UV lights on for a small period, turning the UV lights on for five minutes, and then going back to the bypass. A CFD simulation using ANSYS Fluent was done to determine the optimal inlet and outlet positions of the biochamber that housed the sensors. The objective of the simulation was to determine which inlet and outlet locations provided the best fluid flow for sensor contact and mixing. Sensitivity analysis of varying parameters were tested to determine the optimal settings in producing accurate results to fulfill the simulation goals. It was determined that a vertical position biochamber with an inlet centered on the top face and the outlet on the bottom of a side face was ideal. The main experimental results showed that ethanol of both low and high concentrations were completely or almost fully degraded into carbon-products. The results showed that there was CO2 consumption and it was most likely due to a combination of sensor inaccuracy and accumulation onto the catalyst surface. However, the sensor inaccuracy would not account for the entirely of the CO2 consumption and previous studies have shown that carbon-products do form on the catalyst surface. Therefore, it can be asserted that CO2 has accumulated on the catalyst and the inclusion of water may have caused catalyst deactivation. Having the light on the photoreactor the whole time rather than waiting to turn on the light has shown to decrease the period of degradation but has no effect on the amount of degradation. Research from Nimlos, Muggli, etc., have determined that intermediate products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid, formaldehyde, and formic acid form during ethanol degradation and this can be assumed to have occurred in this research as well. These intermediate products were not analyzed for this study, but has been included in the go-forward for future works. For indoor applications, TiO2 catalyst have already been implemented into consumer and commercialized air purifiers, but there is tremendous potential for HVAC systems. There are concerns with HVAC application as discussed, but if implemented correctly, it can be a useful tool for indoor air purification.

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  • 2017-05

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Hexavalent chromium removal using ultraviolet photocatalytic reactor

Description

Hexavalant chromium (Cr(VI)) poses an emerging concern in drinking water treatment with stricter regulations on the horizon. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was investigated as an engineering scale option to remove

Hexavalant chromium (Cr(VI)) poses an emerging concern in drinking water treatment with stricter regulations on the horizon. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was investigated as an engineering scale option to remove hexavalent chromium from drinking or industrial waters via a UV/titanium dioxide (TiO2) process. Using an integrated UV lamp/ceramic membrane system to recirculate TiO2, both hexavalent and total chromium levels were reduced through photocatalytic processes without additional chemicals. Cr(VI) removal increased as a function of higher energy input and TiO2 dosage, achieving above 90% removal for a 1g/L dose of TiO2. Surface analysis of effluent TiO2 confirmed the presence of chromium species.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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TiO2 nanomaterials: human exposure and environmental release

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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial use is becoming more prevalent as is the likelihood of human exposure and environmental release. The goal of this thesis is to develop analytical techniques to

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial use is becoming more prevalent as is the likelihood of human exposure and environmental release. The goal of this thesis is to develop analytical techniques to quantify the level of TiO2 in complex matrices to support environmental, health, and safety research of TiO2 nanomaterials. A pharmacokinetic model showed that the inhalation of TiO2 nanomaterials caused the highest amount to be absorbed and distributed throughout the body. Smaller nanomaterials (< 5nm) accumulated in the kidneys before clearance. Nanoparticles of 25 nm diameter accumulated in the liver and spleen and were cleared from the body slower than smaller nanomaterials. A digestion method using nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and hydrogen peroxide was found to digest organic materials and TiO2 with a recovery of >80%. The samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the method detection limit was 600 ng of Ti. An intratracheal instillation study of TiO2 nanomaterials in rats found anatase TiO2 nanoparticles in the caudal lung lobe of rats 1 day post instillation at a concentration of 1.2 ug/mg dry tissue, the highest deposition rate of any TiO2 nanomaterial. For all TiO2 nanomaterial morphologies the concentrations in the caudal lobes were significantly higher than those in the cranial lobes. In a study of TiO2 concentration in food products, white colored foods or foods with a hard outer shell had higher concentrations of TiO2. Hostess Powdered Donettes were found to have the highest Ti mass per serving with 200 mg Ti. As much as 3.8% of the total TiO2 mass was able to pass through a 0.45 um indicating that some of the TiO2 is likely nanosized. In a study of TiO2 concentrations in personal care products and paints, the concentration of TiO2 was as high as 117 ug/mg in Benjamin Moore white paint and 70 ug/mg in a Neutrogena sunscreen. Greater than 6% of Ti in one sunscreen was able to pass through a 0.45 um filter. The nanosized TiO2 in food products and personal care products may release as much as 16 mg of nanosized TiO2 per individual per day to wastewater.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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A comparative theoretical and experimental investigation on the adsorption of small molecules on anatase and brookite surfaces

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The mitigation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to more useful carbon chemicals is a research topic that is at the forefront of current engineering and sustainability applications. Direct photocatalytic

The mitigation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to more useful carbon chemicals is a research topic that is at the forefront of current engineering and sustainability applications. Direct photocatalytic reduction of CO2 with water (H2O) vapor to C1-C4 hydrocarbons has significant potential in setting substantial groundwork for meeting the increasing energy demands with minimal environmental impact. Previous studies indicate that titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing materials serve as the best photocatalyst for CO2 and H2O conversion to higher-value products. An understanding of the CO2-H2O reaction mechanism over TiO2 materials allows one to increase the yield of certain products such as carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The basis of the work discussed in this thesis, investigates the interaction of small molecules (CO, CH4,H2O) over the least studied TiO2 polymorph - brookite. Using the Gaussian03 computational chemistry software package, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption behavior of CO, H2O, and CH4 gases on perfect and oxygen-deficient brookite TiO2 (210) and anatase TiO2 (101) surfaces. The most geometrically and energetically favorable configurations of these molecules on the TiO2 surfaces were computed using the B3LYP/6-31+G(2df,p) functional/basis set. Calculations from this theoretical study indicate all three molecules adsorb more favorably onto the brookite TiO2 (210) surface. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the adsorption and desorption behavior of H2O and CH4 on Evonik P25 TiO2. Results from the experimental studies and theoretical work will serve as a significant basis for reaction prediction on brookite TiO2 surfaces.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Atomic level study of structural changes of TiO2 based photocatalysts during solar water splitting reactions using TEM

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Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising technique to produce H2 fuels from water using sustainable solar energy. To better design photocatalysts, the understanding of charge transfer at surfaces/interfaces and the

Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising technique to produce H2 fuels from water using sustainable solar energy. To better design photocatalysts, the understanding of charge transfer at surfaces/interfaces and the corresponding structure change during the reaction is very important. Local structural and chemical information on nanoparticle surfaces or interfaces can be achieved through characterizations on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Emphasis should be put on materials structure changes during the reactions in their “working conditions”. Environmental TEM with in situ light illumination system allows the photocatalysts to be studied under light irradiation when exposed to H2O vapor. A set of ex situ and in situ TEM characterizations are carried out on typical types of TiO2 based photocatalysts. The observed structure changes during the reaction are correlated with the H2 production rate for structure-property relationships.

A surface disordering was observed in situ when well-defined anatase TiO2 rhombohedral nanoparticles were exposed to 1 Torr H2O vapor and 10suns light inside the environmental TEM. The disordering is believed to be related to high density of hydroxyl groups formed on surface oxygen vacancies during water splitting reactions.

Pt co-catalyst on TiO2 is able to split pure water producing H2 and O2. The H2 production rate drops during the reaction. Particle size growth during reaction was discovered with Z-contrast images. The particle size growth is believed to be a photo-electro-chemical Ostwald ripening.

Characterizations were also carried out on a more complicated photocatalyst system: Ni/NiO core/shell co-catalyst on TiO2. A decrease of the H2 production rate resulting from photo-corrosion was observed. The Ni is believed to be oxidized to Ni2+ by OH• radicals which are intermediate products of H2O oxidation. The mechanism that the OH• radicals leak into the cores through cracks on NiO shells is more supported by experiments.

Overall this research has done a comprehensive ex situ and in situ TEM characterizations following some typical TiO2 based photocatalysts during reactions. This research has shown the technique availability to study photocatalyst inside TEM in photocatalytic conditions. It also demonstrates the importance to follow structure changes of materials during reactions in understanding deactivation mechanisms.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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A density functional theory study of CO2 interaction with brookite TiO2

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Over the past years, an interest has arisen in resolving two major issues: increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and depleting energy resources. A convenient solution would be a process that

Over the past years, an interest has arisen in resolving two major issues: increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and depleting energy resources. A convenient solution would be a process that could simultaneously use CO2 while producing energy. The photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuels over the photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2) is such a process. However, this process is presently inefficient and unsuitable for industrial applications. A step toward making this process more effective is to alter TiO2 based photocatalysts to improve their activity. The interactions of CO2 with oxygen-deficient and unmodified (210) surfaces of brookite TiO2 were studied using first-principle calculations on cluster systems. Charge and spin density analyses were implemented to determine if charge transfer to the CO2 molecule occurred and whether this charge transfer was comparable to that seen with the oxygen-deficient and unmodified anatase TiO2 (101) surfaces. Although the unmodified brookite (210) surface provided energetically similar CO2 interactions as compared to the unmodified anatase (101) surface, the unmodified brookite surface had negligible charge transfer to the CO2 molecule. This result suggests that unmodified brookite is not a suitable catalyst for the reduction of CO2. However, the results also suggest that modification of the brookite surface through the creation of oxygen vacancies may lead to enhancements in CO2 reduction. The computational results were supported with laboratory data for CO2 interaction with perfect brookite and oxygen-deficient brookite. The laboratory data, generated using diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, confirms the presence of CO2- on only the oxygen-deficient brookite. Additional computational work was performed on I-doped anatase (101) and I-doped brookite (210) surface clusters. Adsorption energies and charge and spin density analyses were performed and the results compared. While charge and spin density analyses showed minute charge transfer to CO2, the calculated adsorption energies demonstrated an increased affinity for CO2adsorption onto the I-doped brookite surface. Gathering the results from all calculations, the computational work on oxygen-deficient, I-doped, and unmodified anatase and brookite surface structures suggest that brookite TiO2 is a potential photocatalysts for CO2 photoreduction.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Nanoporous transparent conducting oxides and new solid acid catalysts

Description

New sol-gel routes were developed to fabricate transparent conducting oxide coatings for energy applications. Sol-gel synthesis was chosen because the metal oxide products have high surface area and porosity.

New sol-gel routes were developed to fabricate transparent conducting oxide coatings for energy applications. Sol-gel synthesis was chosen because the metal oxide products have high surface area and porosity. Titanium sol-gel chemistry was the main focus of the studies, and the synthesis of macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide was also explored. The surface chemistry and band characteristics of anatase TiO2 show promise for solar energy purposes as photoelectrodes in DSSCs and as photocatalysts to degrade organic dyes and to split water. Modifying the band structure by increasing the conduction band edge energy is specifically of interest for reducing protons in water. To this end, a new sol-gel method was developed for incorporating Zr-dopant in nanoporous anatase TiO2. The products follow Vegard’s law up to 20 atom%, exhibiting surface area of 79 m2/g and pore volume of 0.20 cm3/g with average pore diameter of 10.3 nm; the conduction band edge energy increased by 0.22 eV and the band gap increased by 0.1 eV.

In pursuit of a greener sol-gel route for TiO2 materials, a solution of TiOSO4 in water was explored. Success in obtaining a gel came by utilizing hydrogen peroxide as a ligand that suppressed precipitation reactions. Through modifying this sol-gel chemistry to obtain a solid acid, the new material hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H1-xTi2(PO4)3-x(SO4)x, (0 < x < 0.5) was synthesized and characterized for the first time. From the reported synthetic route, this compound took the form of macroscopic agglomerates of nanoporous aggregates of nanoparticles around 20 nm and the product calcined at 600 °C exhibited surface area of 78 m2/g, pore volume of 0.22 cm3/g and an average pore width of 11 nm. This solid acid exhibits complete selectivity for the non-oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde and hydrogen gas, with >50% conversion at 300 °C.

Finally, hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony doped tin oxide was synthesized with regular macropore size around 210 nm, determined by statistical dye trajectory tracking, and also with larger pores up to micrometers in size. The structure consisted of nanoparticles around 4 nm in size, with textural mesopores around 20 nm in diameter.

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Date Created
  • 2016