Matching Items (7)

Point-of-Care Testing for Detection of Measles and Mumps Immunity

Description

Measles and mumps are highly contagious, vaccine-preventable diseases with cases continuing to persist in high two-dose vaccinated populations. Recent outbreaks on university and college campuses across the United States prompt a need for further understanding of the immunity levels afforded

Measles and mumps are highly contagious, vaccine-preventable diseases with cases continuing to persist in high two-dose vaccinated populations. Recent outbreaks on university and college campuses across the United States prompt a need for further understanding of the immunity levels afforded by the MMR vaccine which has significantly decreased incidence rates of measles and mumps since it was introduced.
Current methods for IgG antibody detection include enzyme immunoassays (EIA) such as the commercially available Diamedix Immunosimplicity® Measles IgG test kit and the Diamedix Immunosimplicity® Mumps IgG test kit. EIAs generally provide high sensitivity and strong specificity, however, there is a need for rapid screening of measles and mumps specific immunity in outbreak and resource-limited areas which could be solved by use a point-of-care (POC) platform.
This study aims to optimize a point-of-care device for the multiplexed detection of MeV, MuV, and RuV IgG antibodies in sera and to compare the sensitivity to commercial enzyme immunoassays. The IgG antibody levels to MeV and MuV were measured using EIA test kits for a total of 44 healthy serum samples. Of the samples, 6% were seronegative for MeV-specific IgG antibodies and 75% were seronegative for MuV-specific antibodies, showing low correlation of IgG antibody levels between both viruses.
To improve the sensitivity of the POC device, multiple conjugated fluorescent secondary antibodies were tested with different surface chemistries. Signal detection was measured using the pre-developed four-site slide reader. Preliminary data show that Nile Red microspheres provide robust signal detection and should be the secondary antibody of choice when sera are tested for IgG antibodies using the POC platform in future work.

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Date Created
2017-05

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A Smart Home Medical Device for Accurate Metabolic Assessment

Description

Energy Expenditure (EE), a key diagnostic measurement for treatment of obesity, is measured via indirect calorimetry method through breath biomarkers of CO2 production and/or O2 consumption rates (VCO2 and/or VO2, respectively). Current technologies are limited due to prevailing designs requiring

Energy Expenditure (EE), a key diagnostic measurement for treatment of obesity, is measured via indirect calorimetry method through breath biomarkers of CO2 production and/or O2 consumption rates (VCO2 and/or VO2, respectively). Current technologies are limited due to prevailing designs requiring wearable facial accessories that present accuracy, precision, and usability concerns with regards to free living measurement. A novel medical device and smart home system, named Smart Pad, has been developed, with the capability of energy expenditure assessment via VCO2 measured from a room’s CO2 concentration. The system has 3 distinct capabilities: contactless EE measurement, air quality optimization via actuation of room ventilation, and efficiency optimization via ventilation actuation of only human-occupied environments. The Smart Pad shows accuracy of 90% for 14-19 minutes of resting measurement and accuracy of 90% for 4.8-7.0 minutes of exercise measurement after calibrating for air exchange rate (λ [hour-1]) using a reference method. Without reference instrument calibration, the Smart Pad system shows average accuracy of nearly 100% with correlations of Y=1.02X, R=0.761 for high resolution measurements and Y=1.06X, R=0.937 for averaged measurements over 50-60 minutes. In addition, the Smart Pad validation for contactless EE measurement has been performed in different environments, including a vehicle, medical office, a private office, and an ambulatory enclosure with rooms, ranging in volume from 3.1 m3 to 18.8m3. It was concluded that contactless EE measurements can be accurately performed in all tested scenarios with both low and high air exchange environments with λ ranging from 1.5 Hours-1 to 10.0 Hours -1. The system represents a new way to assess EE of individuals under free-living conditions in an unobstructive, passive, and accurate manner, and it is comparable or better in single breath gas measurement accuracy (with comparisons sourced from FDA data) than other medical devices (e.g. Vyntus CPXTM, MasterScreen CPXTM, Oxycon ProTM, and MedGemTM) which were 510(k) cleared by the FDA for prescription use in metabolic/cardiopulmonary diagnostics.

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Date Created
2021

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Rapid point-of-care testing for measles immunity

Description

Measles is a contagious, vaccine-preventable disease that continues to be the leading

cause of death in children younger than the age of 5 years. While the introduction of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR) has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality

Measles is a contagious, vaccine-preventable disease that continues to be the leading

cause of death in children younger than the age of 5 years. While the introduction of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR) has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, vaccine coverage is highly variable across global regions. Current diagnostic methods rely on enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to detect IgM or IgG Abs in serum. Commercially available Diamedix Immunosimplicity® Measles IgG test kit has been shown to have 91.1% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity, with a positive predictive value of 88.7% and a negative predictive value of 90.9% on the basis of a PRN titer of 120. There is an increasing need for rapid screening for measles specific immunity in outbreak settings. This study aims to develop a rapid molecular diagnostic assay to detect IgG reactive to three individual measles virus (MeV) proteins.

Measles virus (MeV) genes were subcloned into the pJFT7_nGST vector to generate N- terminal GST fusion proteins. Single MeV cistrons were expressed using in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) with human cell lysate. Expression of GST-tagged proteins was measured with mouse anti-GST mAb and sheep anti-mouse IgG. Relative light units (RLUs) as luminescence was measured. Antibodies to MeV antigens were measured in 40 serum samples from healthy subjects.

Protein expression of three MeV genes of interest was measured in comparison with vector control and statistical significance was determined using the Student’s t-test (p<0.05). N expressed at the highest level with an average RLU value of 3.01 x 109 (p<0.001) and all proteins were expressed at least 50% greater than vector control (4.56 x 106 RLU). 36/40 serum samples had IgG to N (Ag:GST ratio>1.21), F (Ag:GST ratio>1.92), or H (Ag:GST ratio> 1.23).

These data indicate that the in vitro expression of MeV antigens, N, F, and H, were markedly improved by subcloning into pJFT7_nGST vector to generate N-terminal GST fusion proteins. The expression of single MeV genes N, F and H, are suitable antigens for serologic capture analysis of measles-specific antibodies. These preliminary data can be used to design a more intensive study to explore the possibilities of using these MeV antigens as a diagnostic marker.

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Date Created
2016

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Six Sigma Design and Analysis for Point of Care Diagnostics

Description

This work focuses on qualifying the performance of an optoelectrical measurement system designed to analyze ribonucleic acid (RNA) within a micro sample. The system is capable of measuring light intensity converted to voltage versus time and is a fast, inexpensive,

This work focuses on qualifying the performance of an optoelectrical measurement system designed to analyze ribonucleic acid (RNA) within a micro sample. The system is capable of measuring light intensity converted to voltage versus time and is a fast, inexpensive, and portable method for rapid detection of biologics such as SARS-CoV-2 virus, or Covid-19 disease. The measurement system consists of a microfluidic chip and a point of care fluorescent reader.The intent of this research is to measure consistency and robustness of the fluorescent reader combined with the microfluidic chip. The consistency and the robustness of the fluorescent reader within the duty cycle of the system power and the measurement system were analyzed with Six Sigma methods. Control charts, analysis of variance (ANOVAs), and variance components calculations were implemented to characterize the reader system. Through the process of this analysis, baseline characteristics were measured and documented providing valuable data for the improved instrument design.
The existing microfluidic chip is a prototype that works in combination with the reader based on fluorescent detection. Baseline studies were required to define any issues related to microfluidic autofluorescence. Multiple designs were tested to measure reduction in autofluorescence in the microfluidics. It was found that certain designs performed better than others. One approach for improvement in the microfluidic chip may be achieved by characterizing and source controlling materials, optimizing layers, mask apertures, and mask orientations to determine reliability in the measurable output through the fluorescent reader. Since the reader and the microfluidic are designed to work together, any future studies should explore testing where the two components are considered a coupled system.

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Date Created
2021

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Point of Care Detection of Iron Metabolism Parameters Through Colorimetric Sensing

Description

Abnormally low or high blood iron levels are common health conditions worldwide and can seriously affect an individual’s overall well-being. A low-cost point-of-care technology that measures blood iron markers with a goal of both preventing and treating iron-related disorders represents

Abnormally low or high blood iron levels are common health conditions worldwide and can seriously affect an individual’s overall well-being. A low-cost point-of-care technology that measures blood iron markers with a goal of both preventing and treating iron-related disorders represents a significant advancement in medical care delivery systems. Methods: A novel assay equipped with an accurate, storable, and robust dry sensor strip, as well as a smartphone mount and (iPhone) app is used to measure total iron in human serum. The sensor strip has a vertical flow design and is based on an optimized chemical reaction. The reaction strips iron ions from blood-transport proteins, reduces Fe(III) to Fe(II), and chelates Fe(II) with ferene, with the change indicated by a blue color on the strip. The smartphone mount is robust and controls the light source of the color reading App, which is calibrated to obtain output iron concentration results. The real serum samples are then used to assess iron concentrations from the new assay and validated through intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory experiments. The intra-laboratory validation uses an optimized iron detection assay with multi-well plate spectrophotometry. The inter-laboratory validation method is performed in a commercial testing facility (LabCorp). Results: The novel assay with the dry sensor strip and smartphone mount, and App is seen to be sensitive to iron detection with a dynamic range of 50 - 300 µg/dL, sensitivity of 0.00049 µg/dL, coefficient of variation (CV) of 10.5%, and an estimated detection limit of ~15 µg/dL These analytical specifications are useful for predicting iron deficiency and overloads. The optimized reference method has a sensitivity of 0.00093 µg/dL and CV of 2.2%. The correlation of serum iron concentrations (N=20) between the optimized reference method and the novel assay renders a slope of 0.95, and a regression coefficient of 0.98, suggesting that the new assay is accurate. Lastly, a spectrophotometric study of the iron detection reaction kinetics is seen to reveal the reaction order for iron and chelating agent. Conclusion: The new assay is able to provide accurate results in intra- and inter- laboratory validations and has promising features of both mobility and low-cost.

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Date Created
2020

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Efficient Methods of Human Leukocyte Antigen Capture in a Point of Care Setting

Description

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a protein on the surface of cells that is a large component of the adaptive immune response as it helps recognize foreign pathogenic material. We wonder if a set of primers designed for each

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a protein on the surface of cells that is a large component of the adaptive immune response as it helps recognize foreign pathogenic material. We wonder if a set of primers designed for each HLA type could be used to amplify a wide spectrum of HLA to improve sequencing of HLA to improve HLA-typing access. We propose the use of an HLA allele panel to determine the pulldown capacity of the primers followed by MinION sequencing and also offer a multiplexing design for running 96 patients at once. Our results show that primers can capture Class I HLA alleles and typing was successful with an average alignment accuracy of 91.7%. In conclusion this method for HLA capture could be utilized for HLA-typing with material costs of under $3.00 per sample within 3 days.

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Date Created
2022-05

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Development of the SmartPad System for Energy Expenditure Measurement: A Novel Internet of Things (IoT) Diagnostic Medical Device for Obesity Treatment and Physical Fitness Assessment.

Description

Energy Expenditure (EE) (kcal/day) is a key parameter used to guide obesity treatment, and it is often measured from CO2 production, VCO2 (mL/min), and/or O2 consumption, VO2 (mL/min) through the principles of indirect calorimetry. Current EE measurement technologies are limited

Energy Expenditure (EE) (kcal/day) is a key parameter used to guide obesity treatment, and it is often measured from CO2 production, VCO2 (mL/min), and/or O2 consumption, VO2 (mL/min) through the principles of indirect calorimetry. Current EE measurement technologies are limited due to the requirement of wearable facial accessories, which can introduce errors as measurements are not taken under free-living conditions. A novel contactless system, the SmartPad, which measures EE via VCO2 from a room’s ambient CO2 concentration transients was evaluated. First, SmartPad accuracy was validated by comparing the SmartPad’s EE and VCO2 measurements with the measurements of a reference instrument, the MGC Ultima CPXTM, in a cross-sectional study consisting of 20 subjects. A high correlation between the SmartPad’s EE and VCO2 measurements and the MGC Ultima CPX’s EE and VCO2 measurements was found, and the Bland-Altman plots contained a low mean bias for EE and VCO2 measurements. Thus, the SmartPad was validated as being accurate for VCO2 and EE measurements. Next, resting EE (REE) and exercise VCO2 measurements were recorded using the SmartPad and the MGC Ultima CPXTM at different operating CO2 threshold ranges to investigate the influence of measurement duration on system accuracy in an effort to optimize the SmartPad system. The SmartPad displayed 90% accuracy (±1 SD) for 14–19 min of REE measurement and for 4.8–7.0 min of exercise, using a known room’s air exchange rate. Additionally, the SmartPad was validated by accurately measuring subjects’ REE across a wide range of body mass indexes (BMI = 18.8 to 31.4 kg/m^2) with REEs ranging from ~1200 to ~3000 kcal/day. Lastly, the SmartPad has been used to assess the physical fitness of subjects via the “Contactless Thermodynamic Efficiency Test” (CTET).

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Date Created
2022-05