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Design and calibration of a 12-bit current-steering DAC using data-interleaving

Description

High speed current-steering DACs with high linearity are needed in today's applications such as wired and wireless communications, instrumentation, radar, and other direct digital synthesis (DDS) applications. However, a trade-off exists between the speed and resolution of Nyquist rate

High speed current-steering DACs with high linearity are needed in today's applications such as wired and wireless communications, instrumentation, radar, and other direct digital synthesis (DDS) applications. However, a trade-off exists between the speed and resolution of Nyquist rate current-steering DACs. As the resolution increases, more transistor area is required to meet matching requirements for optimal linearity and thus, the overall speed of the DAC is limited.

In this thesis work, a 12-bit current-steering DAC was designed with current sources scaled below the required matching size to decrease the area and increase the overall speed of the DAC. By scaling the current sources, however, errors due to random mismatch between current sources will arise and additional calibration hardware is necessary to ensure 12-bit linearity. This work presents how to implement a self-calibration DAC that works to fix amplitude errors while maintaining a lower overall area. Additionally, the DAC designed in this thesis investigates the implementation feasibility of a data-interleaved architecture. Data interleaving can increase the total bandwidth of the DACs by 2 with an increase in SQNR by an additional 3 dB.

The final results show that the calibration method can effectively improve the linearity of the DAC. The DAC is able to run up to 400 MSPS frequencies with a 75 dB SFDR performance and above 87 dB SFDR performance at update rates of 200 MSPS.

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Date Created
2014

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An Electrical-Stimulus-Only BIST IC For Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer Sensitivity Characterization

Description

Testing and calibration constitute a significant part of the overall manufacturing cost of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. Developing a low-cost testing and calibration scheme applicable at the user side that ensures the continuous reliability and accuracy is a crucial need.

Testing and calibration constitute a significant part of the overall manufacturing cost of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. Developing a low-cost testing and calibration scheme applicable at the user side that ensures the continuous reliability and accuracy is a crucial need. The main purpose of testing is to eliminate defective devices and to verify the qualifications of a product is met. The calibration process for capacitive MEMS devices, for the most part, entails the determination of the mechanical sensitivity. In this work, a physical-stimulus-free built-in-self-test (BIST) integrated circuit (IC) design characterizing the sensitivity of capacitive MEMS accelerometers is presented. The BIST circuity can extract the amplitude and phase response of the acceleration sensor's mechanics under electrical excitation within 0.55% of error with respect to its mechanical sensitivity under the physical stimulus. Sensitivity characterization is performed using a low computation complexity multivariate linear regression model. The BIST circuitry maximizes the use of existing analog and mixed-signal readout signal chain and the host processor core, without the need for computationally expensive Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based approaches. The BIST IC is designed and fabricated using the 0.18-µm CMOS technology. The sensor analog front-end and BIST circuitry are integrated with a three-axis, low-g capacitive MEMS accelerometer in a single hermetically sealed package. The BIST circuitry occupies 0.3 mm2 with a total readout IC area of 1.0 mm2 and consumes 8.9 mW during self-test operation.

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Date Created
2017

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Electrical Stimulation Based Statistical Calibration Model For MEMS Accelerometer And Other Sensors

Description

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based accelerometers are one of the most commonly used sensors out there. They are used in devices such as, airbags, smartphones, airplanes, and many more. Although they are very accurate, they degrade with time or

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based accelerometers are one of the most commonly used sensors out there. They are used in devices such as, airbags, smartphones, airplanes, and many more. Although they are very accurate, they degrade with time or get offset due to some damage. To fix this, they must be calibrated again using physical calibration technique, which is an expensive process to conduct. However, these sensors can also be calibrated infield by applying an on-chip electrical stimulus to the sensor. Electrical stimulus-based calibration could bring the cost of testing and calibration significantly down as compared to factory testing. In this thesis, simulations are presented to formulate a statistical prediction model based on an electrical stimulus. Results from two different approaches of electrical calibration have been discussed. A prediction model with a root mean square error of 1% has been presented in this work. Experiments were conducted on commercially available accelerometers to test the techniques used for simulations.

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Date Created
2020