Matching Items (10)

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Leye (Lie) Detector \u2014 A Study of Lie Detection using Eye Tracking, Facial Gestures, and EEG

Description

Lie detection is used prominently in contemporary society for many purposes such as for pre-employment screenings, granting security clearances, and determining if criminals or potential subjects may or may not be lying, but by no means is not limited to

Lie detection is used prominently in contemporary society for many purposes such as for pre-employment screenings, granting security clearances, and determining if criminals or potential subjects may or may not be lying, but by no means is not limited to that scope. However, lie detection has been criticized for being subjective, unreliable, inaccurate, and susceptible to deliberate manipulation. Furthermore, critics also believe that the administrator of the test also influences the outcome as well. As a result, the polygraph machine, the contemporary device used for lie detection, has come under scrutiny when used as evidence in the courts. The purpose of this study is to use three entirely different tools and concepts to determine whether eye tracking systems, electroencephalogram (EEG), and Facial Expression Emotion Analysis (FACET) are reliable tools for lie detection. This study found that certain constructs such as where the left eye is looking at in regard to its usual position and engagement levels in eye tracking and EEG respectively could distinguish between truths and lies. However, the FACET proved the most reliable tool out of the three by providing not just one distinguishing variable but seven, all related to emotions derived from movements in the facial muscles during the present study. The emotions associated with the FACET that were documented to possess the ability to distinguish between truthful and lying responses were joy, anger, fear, confusion, and frustration. In addition, an overall measure of the subject's neutral and positive emotional expression were found to be distinctive factors. The implications of this study and future directions are discussed.

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Date Created
2017-05

Track eye movement of human listeners in a spatial localization task

Description

To localize different sound sources in an environment, the auditory system analyzes acoustic properties of sounds reaching the ears to determine the exact location of a sound source. Successful sound localization is important for improving signal detection and speech intelligibility

To localize different sound sources in an environment, the auditory system analyzes acoustic properties of sounds reaching the ears to determine the exact location of a sound source. Successful sound localization is important for improving signal detection and speech intelligibility in a noisy environment. Sound localization is not a uni-sensory experience, and can be influenced by visual information (e.g., the ventriloquist effect). Vision provides contexts and organizes the auditory space for the auditory system. This investigation tracks eye movement of human subjects using a non-invasive eye-tracking system and evaluates the impact of visual stimulation on localization of a phantom sound source generated through timing-based stereophony. It was hypothesized that gaze movement could reveal the way in which visual stimulation (LED lights) shifts the perception of a sound source. However, the results show that subjects do not always move their gaze towards the light direction even when they experience strong visual capture. On average, the gaze direction indicates the perceived sound location with and without light stimulation.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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Eye-tracking investigations exploring how students learn geology from photographs and The structural setting of hydrothermal gold deposits in the San Antonio area, B.C.S., MX

Description

Geoscience educators commonly teach geology by projecting a photograph in front of the class. Geologic photographs often contain animals, people, and inanimate objects that help convey the scale of features in the photograph. Although scale items seem innocuous to instructors

Geoscience educators commonly teach geology by projecting a photograph in front of the class. Geologic photographs often contain animals, people, and inanimate objects that help convey the scale of features in the photograph. Although scale items seem innocuous to instructors and other experts, the presence of such items is distracting and has a profound effect on student learning behavior. To evaluate how students visually interact with distracting scale items in photographs and to determine if cueing or signaling is an effective means to direct students to pertinent information, students were eye tracked while looking at geologically-rich photographs. Eye-tracking data revealed that learners primarily looked at the center of an image, focused on faces of both humans and animals if they were present, and repeatedly returned to looking at the scale item (distractor) for the duration an image was displayed. The presence of a distractor caused learners to look at less of an image than when a distractor was not present. Learners who received signaling tended to look at the distractor less, look at the geology more, and surveyed more of the photograph than learners who did not receive signaling. The San Antonio area in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula is host to hydrothermal gold deposits. A field study, including drill-core analysis and detailed geologic mapping, was conducted to determine the types of mineralization present, the types of structures present, and the relationship between the two. This investigation revealed that two phases of mineralization have occurred in the area; the first is hydrothermal deposition of gold associated with sulfide deposits and the second is oxidation of sulfides to hematite, goethite, and jarosite. Mineralization varies as a function of depth, whereas sulfides occurring at depth, while minerals indicative of oxidation are limited to shallow depths. A structural analysis revealed that the oldest structures in the study area include low-grade to medium-grade metamorphic foliation and ductile mylonitic shear zones overprinted by brittle-ductile mylonitic fabrics, which were later overprinted by brittle deformation. Both primary and secondary mineralization in the area is restricted to the later brittle features. Alteration-bearing structures have an average NNW strike consistent with northeast-southwest-directed extension, whereas unaltered structures have an average NNE strike consistent with more recent northwest-southeast-directed extension.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Late Quaternary normal faulting and hanging wall basin evolution of the southwestern rift margin from gravity and geology, B.C.S., MX and exploring the influence of text-figure format on introductory geology learning

Description

An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better

An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely rifted plate margin, gravity surveys were conducted across the normal-fault-bounded basins within the gulf-margin array and, along with optically stimulated luminescence dating of offset surfaces, fault-slip rates were estimated and fault patterns across basins were assessed, providing insight into sedimentary basin evolution. Additionally, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps were constructed along two faults within the system, leading to a more complete understanding of the role of individual normal faults within a larger array. These faults slip at a low rate (0.1-1 mm/yr) and have relatively shallow hanging wall basins (~500-3000 m). Overall, the gulf-margin faults accommodate protracted, distributed deformation at a low rate and provide a minor contribution to overall rifting. Integrating figures with text can lead to greater science learning than when either medium is presented alone. Textbooks, composed of text and graphics, are a primary source of content in most geology classes. It is essential to understand how students approach learning from text and figures in textbook-style learning materials and how the arrangement of the text and figures influences their learning approach. Introductory geology students were eye tracked while learning from textbook-style materials composed of text and graphics. Eye fixation data showed that students spent less time examining the figure than the text, but the students who more frequently examined the figure tended to improve more from the pretest to the posttest. In general, students tended to examine the figure at natural breaks in the reading. Textbook-style materials should, therefore, be formatted to include a number of natural breaks so that learners can pause to inspect the figure without the risk of losing their place in the reading and to provide a chance to process the material in small chunks. Multimedia instructional materials should be designed to support the cognitive processes of the learner.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Learning with multimedia: are visual cues and self-explanation prompts effective?

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of visual cues and different types of self-explanation prompts on learning, cognitive load and intrinsic motivation, as well as the potential interaction between the two factors in a multimedia environment

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of visual cues and different types of self-explanation prompts on learning, cognitive load and intrinsic motivation, as well as the potential interaction between the two factors in a multimedia environment that was designed to deliver a computer-based lesson about the human cardiovascular system. A total of 126 college students were randomly assigned in equal numbers (N = 21) to one of the six experimental conditions in a 2 X 3 factorial design with visual cueing (visual cues vs. no cues) and type of self-explanation prompts (prediction prompts vs. reflection prompts vs. no prompts) as the between-subjects factors. They completed a pretest, subjective cognitive load questions, intrinsic motivation questions, and a posttest during the course of the experience. A subsample (49 out of 126) of the participants' eye movements were tracked by an eye tracker. The results revealed that (a) participants presented with visually cued animations had significantly higher learning outcome scores than their peers who viewed uncued animations; and (b) cognitive load and intrinsic motivation had different impacts on learning in multimedia due to the moderation effect of visual cueing. There were no other significant findings in terms of learning outcomes, cognitive load, intrinsic motivation, and eye movements. Limitations, implications and future directions are discussed within the framework of cognitive load theory, cognitive theory of multimedia learning and cognitive-affective theory of learning with media.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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The evaluation of information visualization techniques using eye tracking

Description

Node-link diagrams are widely used to visualize the relational structure of real world datasets. As identical data can be visualized in infinite ways by simply changing the spatial arrangement of the nodes, one of the important research topics of the

Node-link diagrams are widely used to visualize the relational structure of real world datasets. As identical data can be visualized in infinite ways by simply changing the spatial arrangement of the nodes, one of the important research topics of the graph drawing community is to visualize the data in the way that can facilitate people's comprehension. The last three decades have witnessed the growth of algorithms for automatic visualization. However, despite the popularity of node-link diagrams and the enthusiasm in improving computational efficiency, little is known about how people read these graphs and what factors (layout, size, density, etc.) have impact on their effectiveness (the usability aspect of the graph, e.g., are they easy to understand?). This thesis is comprehensive research to investigate the factors that affect people's understanding of node-link diagrams using eye-tracking methods. Three experiments were conducted, including 1) a pilot study with 22 participants to explore the layout and size effect; 2) an eye tracking experiment with 43 participants to investigate the layout, size and density effect on people's graph comprehension using abstract node-link diagram and generic tasks; and 3) an eye tracking experiment with the same participants to investigate the same effects using a real visualization analytic application. Results showed that participants' spatial reasoning ability had significant impact on people's graph reading performance. Layout, size, and density were all found to be significant effects under different task circumstances. The applicability of the eye tracking methods on visualization evaluation has been confirmed by providing detailed evidence that demonstrates the cognitive process of participants' graph reading behavior.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Quiet Eye Training and the Focus of Visual Attention in Golf Putting

Description

Previous research has shown that training visual attention can improve golf putting performance. A technique called the Quiet Eye focuses on increasing a player’s length of fixation between the ball and the hole. When putting, the final fixation is made

Previous research has shown that training visual attention can improve golf putting performance. A technique called the Quiet Eye focuses on increasing a player’s length of fixation between the ball and the hole. When putting, the final fixation is made on the ball before executing the stroke leaving players to rely on their memory of the hole’s distance and location. The present study aimed to test the effectiveness of Quiet Eye training for final fixation on the hole. Twelve Arizona State University (ASU) students with minimal golf experience putted while wearing eye tracking glasses under the following conditions: from three feet with final fixation on the ball, from six feet with final fixation on the ball, from three feet with final fixation on the hole and from six feet with final fixation on the hole. Participant’s performance was measured before training, following quiet eye training, and under simulated pressure conditions. Putting performance was not significantly affected by final fixation for all conditions. The number of total putts made was significantly greater when putting from three feet for all conditions. Future research should test the effects of this training with expert golfers whose processes are more automatic compared to novices and can afford to look at the hole while putting.

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Created

Date Created
2019

Measuring Attention Control Abilities with a Gaze Following Antisaccade Paradigm

Description

Social gaze-following consists of both reflexive and volitional control mechanisms of saccades, similar to those evaluated in the antisaccade task. This similarity makes gaze-following an ideal medium for studying attention in a social context. The present study seeks to utilize

Social gaze-following consists of both reflexive and volitional control mechanisms of saccades, similar to those evaluated in the antisaccade task. This similarity makes gaze-following an ideal medium for studying attention in a social context. The present study seeks to utilize reflexive gaze-following to develop a social paradigm for measuring attention control. Two gaze-following variations of the antisaccade task are evaluated. In version one, participants are cued with still images of a social partner looking either left or right. In version two, participants are cued with videos of a social partner shifting their gaze to the left or right. As with the traditional antisaccade task, participants are required to look in the opposite direction of the target stimuli (i.e., gaze cues). Performance on the new gaze-following antisaccade tasks is compared to the traditional antisaccade task as well as the highly related ability of working memory.

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Date Created
2018

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Visual Behavior and Planning for Object Manipulation: Gaze Patterns for Altered Center of Mass

Description

The interaction between visual fixations during planning and performance in a

dexterous task was analyzed. An eye-tracking device was affixed to subjects during

sequences of null (salient center of mass) and weighted (non salient center of mass) trials

with unconstrained precision grasp. Subjects

The interaction between visual fixations during planning and performance in a

dexterous task was analyzed. An eye-tracking device was affixed to subjects during

sequences of null (salient center of mass) and weighted (non salient center of mass) trials

with unconstrained precision grasp. Subjects experienced both expected and unexpected

perturbations, with the task of minimizing object roll. Unexpected perturbations were

controlled by switching weights between trials, expected perturbations were controlled by

asking subjects to rotate the object themselves. In all cases subjects were able to

minimize the roll of the object within three trials. Eye fixations were correlated with

object weight for the initial context and for known shifts in center of mass. In subsequent

trials with unexpected weight shifts, subjects appeared to scan areas of interest from both

contexts even after learning present orientation.

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Created

Date Created
2017

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Comparing the impact of augmented reality and 3D models as visual representations in eBook

Description

Electronic books or eBooks have the potential to revolutionize the way humans read and learn. eBooks offer many advantages such as simplicity, ease of use, eco-friendliness, and portability. The advancement of technology has introduced many forms of multimedia objects into

Electronic books or eBooks have the potential to revolutionize the way humans read and learn. eBooks offer many advantages such as simplicity, ease of use, eco-friendliness, and portability. The advancement of technology has introduced many forms of multimedia objects into eBooks, which may help people learn from them. To help the readers understand and comprehend a concept that is put forward by the author of an eBook, there is ongoing research involving the use of augmented reality (AR) in education. This study explores how AR and three-dimensional interactive models are integrated into eBooks to help the readers comprehend the content quickly and swiftly. It compares the reading activities of people when they experience these two visual representations within an eBook.

This study required participants to interact with some instructional material presented on an eBook and complete a learning measure. While interacting with the eBook, participants were equipped with a set of physiological devices, namely an ABM EEG headset and eye tracker during the experiment to collect biometric data that could be used to objectively measure their user experience. Fifty college students participated in this study. The data collected from each of the participants was used to analyze the reading activities of people by performing an Independent Samples t-test.

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Created

Date Created
2017