Matching Items (2)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

134278-Thumbnail Image.png

Dysregulated ERK/MAPK Signaling in RASopathy Animal Model Systems Leads to a Decrease in mTOR Expression and Activation of Translational Machinery

Description

The RAS/MAPK (RAS/Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) pathway is a highly conserved, canonical signaling cascade that is highly involved in cellular growth and proliferation as well as cell migration. As such, it plays an important role in development, specifically in development

The RAS/MAPK (RAS/Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) pathway is a highly conserved, canonical signaling cascade that is highly involved in cellular growth and proliferation as well as cell migration. As such, it plays an important role in development, specifically in development of the nervous system. Activation of ERK is indispensable for the differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) into neuronal precursors (Li z et al, 2006). ERK signaling has also shown to mediate Schwann cell myelination of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) as well as oligodendrocyte proliferation (Newbern et al, 2011). The class of developmental disorders that result in the dysregulation of RAS signaling are known as RASopathies. The molecular and cell-specific consequences of these various pathway mutations remain to be elucidated. While there is evidence for altered DNA transcription in RASopathies, there is little work examining the effects of the RASopathy-linked mutations on protein translation and post-translational modifications in vivo. RASopathies have phenotypic and molecular similarities to other disorders such as Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC) that show evidence of aberrant protein synthesis and affect related pathways. There are also well-defined downstream RAS pathway elements involved in translation. Additionally, aberrant corticospinal axon outgrowth has been observed in disease models of RASopathies (Xing et al, 2016). For these reasons, this present study examines a subset of proteins involved in translation and translational regulation in the context of RASopathy disease states. Results indicate that in both of the tested RASopathy model systems, there is altered mTOR expression. Additionally the loss of function model showed a decrease in rps6 activation. This data supports a role for the selective dysregulation of translational control elements in RASopathy models. This data also indicates that the primary candidate mechanism for control of altered translation in these modes is through the altered expression of mTOR.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

Systemic Exposure to the HIV Protein gp120 Prevents the Inhibition of Cue-Induced Cocaine Seeking by the Novel Dopamine D3 Receptor Partial Agonist MC-25-41

Description

Use of psychostimulants, such as cocaine, is associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Dopaminergic signaling within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is critically implicated in both disease states, mediating the addictive and reinforcing effects of cocaine

Use of psychostimulants, such as cocaine, is associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Dopaminergic signaling within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is critically implicated in both disease states, mediating the addictive and reinforcing effects of cocaine and perpetuating HIV replication throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Cocaine and HIV induce neurobehavioral deficits separately; however, little is known regarding how they interact to dysregulate neuroimmune function or how this impacts relapse vulnerability. We have previously shown that inhibition of dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) signaling using MC-25-41, a novel and highly selective D3R partial agonist, attenuates cocaine-seeking behavior. Here, we sought to characterize changes in neuroimmune function in a rat model of combined HIV and cocaine use disorders across abstinence and examined the therapeutic efficacy of MC-25-41 in the presence of this comorbidity. Male rats were systemically treated with the HIV protein gp120 after establishing a history of cocaine self-administration and then, following 21 days of abstinence, were administered a systemic injection of MC-25-41 (10 mg/kg) prior to cue reactivity testing. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) immunoreactivity were analyzed after 5 or 21 days of cocaine abstinence as an index of glial cell levels. We demonstrate that inhibition of D3R signaling significantly attenuates cue-induced cocaine seeking among control rats but not gp120-exposed rats. Moreover, we show that NAc core GFAP and Iba1 expression is impaired by 5 days of abstinence, which persists into protracted abstinence and cue reactivity testing. However, we also demonstrate that neither gp120 nor D3R inhibition significantly altered NAc core GFAP or Iba1 expression. Altogether, these results reveal significant changes in glial cell function across cocaine abstinence and unique behavioral interactions with gp120 may inhibit the effectiveness of medication regimens, which highlights the need to consider these comorbidities when treating HIV infection.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-12