Matching Items (19)

135030-Thumbnail Image.png

The Influence of Extracurricular Activities on Self-Regulation in Childhood

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between extracurricular activities and self-regulation in 400 five year old twin children. Extracurricular activities were assessed using the Health and

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between extracurricular activities and self-regulation in 400 five year old twin children. Extracurricular activities were assessed using the Health and Behavior Questionnaire, and self-regulation was assessed using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. While there initially was a significant correlation between extracurricular activities and self-regulation, that correlation became non-significant when controlling for SES and sex in a mixed model regression model. Nearly all of the children who did not participate in extracurricular activities came from lower SES families, leading to a lack of a "control group" for the high SES families. When only taking into account the lower SES half of the sample, the correlation between extracurricular activities and self-regulation became stronger and the correlation between SES and self-regulation became non-significant. Extracurricular activities do appear to promote self-regulation in children coming from low SES families, yet their effects on children coming from high SES families is still unknown.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

Brain Processes in Self-Regulation: An Electroencephalography (EEG) Study

Description

Temporal discounting refers to our tendency to discount the value of future rewards. At the extreme, temporal discounting can give rise to detrimental myopic decision-making. Most studies examining the neural

Temporal discounting refers to our tendency to discount the value of future rewards. At the extreme, temporal discounting can give rise to detrimental myopic decision-making. Most studies examining the neural basis of temporal discounting in people have been performed using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI has relatively poor temporal resolution compared with the speed at which people make choices, so understanding choice dynamics using fMRI is difficult. We address the issue utilizing electroencephalography (EEG) to study cortical processes related to temporal discounting. The fMRI literature has found that a network of fronto-parietal brain regions plays an important role during the decision-making process. We aim to explore activity in these regions during the decision process and determine how cortical activity relates to choice parameters. Based on prior fMRI studies, we hypothesized that dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) may act as a regulator of dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and there will be an increase in dlPFC activity for more difficult decisions. We also hypothesized that neural activity may be directly related to the temporal discount rate we estimate behaviorally. We utilized regression analysis to determine the relationship. The results found supported our hypotheses. This study may open the door to a better understanding of the dynamic of brain regions while performing a temporal discounting task.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

158115-Thumbnail Image.png

Strength Braining: An Innovation Countering Fifth-Grade Underachievement in Mathematics Through Growth Mindset and Self-Regulation

Description

The problem of practice addressed in this mixed methods action research study is the underachievement of fifth-grade students in mathematics. This study explores the effects of an innovation designed to

The problem of practice addressed in this mixed methods action research study is the underachievement of fifth-grade students in mathematics. This study explores the effects of an innovation designed to help students develop a growth mindset by utilizing self-regulation strategies to improve academic growth in mathematics. Students’ underachievement in mathematics has been illustrated by both state and international assessments. Throughout the decades, mathematics instruction and reforms have varied, but overall students’ psychological needs have been neglected. This innovation was designed to develop students’ psychological characteristics regarding facing challenges in mathematics. For this purpose, two guiding theories were utilized to frame this research study, Dweck’s mindset theory and self-regulation theory. To address the research questions of this study, pre- and post-questionnaire data, observational data and student work was analyzed. Results of the qualitative data indicated that the innovation positively impacted students’ mindsets and use of self-regulation strategies. However, quantitative data indicated the innovation had no effect on students’ use of self-regulation strategies or academic growth, and a negative impact on students’ mindsets.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

153133-Thumbnail Image.png

Perceived control of the attribution process: measurement and theory

Description

The primary objective of this study was to develop the Perceived Control of the Attribution Process Scale (PCAPS), a measure of metacognitive beliefs of causality, or a perceived control of

The primary objective of this study was to develop the Perceived Control of the Attribution Process Scale (PCAPS), a measure of metacognitive beliefs of causality, or a perceived control of the attribution process. The PCAPS included two subscales: perceived control of attributions (PCA), and awareness of the motivational consequences of attributions (AMC). Study 1 (a pilot study) generated scale items, explored suitable measurement formats, and provided initial evidence for the validity of an event-specific version of the scale. Study 2 achieved several outcomes; Study 2a provided strong evidence for the validity and reliability of the PCA and AMC subscales, and showed that they represent separate constructs. Study 2b demonstrated the predictive validity of the scale and provided support for the perceived control of the attribution process model. This study revealed that those who adopt these beliefs are significantly more likely to experience autonomy and well-being. Study 2c revealed that these constructs are influenced by context, yet they lead to adaptive outcomes regardless of this contextual-specificity. These findings suggest that there are individual differences in metacognitive beliefs of causality and that these differences have measurable motivational implications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

155680-Thumbnail Image.png

Serotonin functioning and adolescents' alcohol use: a genetically informed study examining mechanisms of risk

Description

The current study utilized data from two longitudinal samples to test mechanisms in the relation between a polygenic risk score indexing serotonin functioning and alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, this

The current study utilized data from two longitudinal samples to test mechanisms in the relation between a polygenic risk score indexing serotonin functioning and alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, this study tested whether individuals with lower levels of serotonin functioning as indexed by a polygenic risk score were vulnerable to poorer self-regulation, and whether poorer self-regulation subsequently predicted the divergent outcomes of depressive symptoms and aggressive/antisocial behaviors. This study then examined whether depressive symptoms and aggressive/antisocial behaviors conferred risk for later alcohol use in adolescence, and whether polygenic risk and effortful control had direct effects on alcohol use that were not mediated through problem behaviors. Finally, the study examined the potential moderating role of gender in these pathways to alcohol use.

Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses. Results from an independent genome-wide association study of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid were used to create serotonin (5-HT) polygenic risk scores, wherein higher scores reflected lower levels of 5-HT functioning. Data from three time points were drawn from each sample, and all paths were prospective. Findings suggested that 5-HT polygenic risk did not predict self-regulatory constructs. However, 5-HT polygenic risk did predict the divergent outcomes of depression and aggression/antisociality, such that higher levels of 5-HT polygenic risk predicted greater levels of depression and aggression/antisociality. Results most clearly supported adolescents’ aggression/antisociality as a mechanism in the relation between 5-HT polygenic risk and later alcohol use. Deficits in self-regulation also predicted depression and aggression/antisociality, and indirectly predicted alcohol use through aggression/antisociality. These pathways to alcohol use might be the most salient for boys with low levels of socioeconomic status.

Results are novel contributions to the literature. The previously observed association between serotonin functioning and alcohol use might be due, in part, to the fact that individuals with lower levels of serotonin functioning are predisposed towards developing earlier aggression/antisociality. Results did not support the hypothesis that serotonin functioning predisposes individuals to deficits in self-regulatory abilities. Findings extend previous research by suggesting that serotonin functioning and self-regulation might be transdiagnostic risk factors for many types of psychopathology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

149325-Thumbnail Image.png

MBA admissions requirements as predictors of motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies in self-selected online MBA students

Description

Driven by a variety of factors, online learning has continued to grow at an unprecedented rate. A Sloan Foundation report issued in January of 2010 indicated that in 2009, 4.6

Driven by a variety of factors, online learning has continued to grow at an unprecedented rate. A Sloan Foundation report issued in January of 2010 indicated that in 2009, 4.6 million students took at least one online class, an increase in 17% over 2008. Graduate business education, and more specifically, Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs have responded to this growth and other drivers such as globalization, institutional competition and student demand by leveraging the online platform more extensively. Because of the continued growth of online programs, there is an ongoing need to better understand the motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies students utilize to achieve academic success. Self-regulation is a social-cognitive construct supported by several decades of research, which posits that students engage in a self-directive process to transform their mental abilities into academic skills. Online MBA students balance work, family, business travel and other life events while pursuing their degree. Their ability to balance life events while succeeding academically suggests they possess the capacity for academic self-regulation. Can admissions requirements that are already in place provide insight into how students' manage their academic self-regulation? This study examined the relationship between the MBA admissions requirements of Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) total score, GMAT verbal score and years of work experience to determine if they were predictive of the student's motivational beliefs and self-regulatory learning strategies. GMAT scores and years of work experience are often thought to be predictors of student success in MBA programs. Self-selected online MBA students (n = 130) completed the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire during the final week of Organization Theory and Behavior, a core course in the MBA program. Analysis indicated that the MBA admissions requirements of GMAT total score, GMAT verbal score, and years of work experience were not reliable predictors of motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies. The findings indicate that while admissions criteria may be predictive of student success in the overall program, they provide little insight about how students manage their motivational beliefs and self-regulatory strategies while participating in their courses.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

155543-Thumbnail Image.png

Examining the effect of Club Aspire on low achieving middle school students

Description

This action research, mixed methods, case study examined middle school student perceptions of the effectiveness of Club Aspire. Club Aspire is an after-school program created to support the lowest achieving

This action research, mixed methods, case study examined middle school student perceptions of the effectiveness of Club Aspire. Club Aspire is an after-school program created to support the lowest achieving seventh and eighth graders in an Arizona K-8 school. The framework of this study comes from the theory of self-regulation, social learning theory and co-regulation. The primary focus of Club Aspire is to teach low achieving middle school students, self-regulation skills and learning strategies through goal setting, self-regulation learning strategy lessons and co-regulation activities.

The study took place over 13 weeks and included 11 participants and answered the following research questions. How do middle school Elevate students perceive the impact of Club Aspire on their self-regulation and themselves as a learner? How does Club Aspire affect middle school Elevate students’ academic success? What do middle school Elevate students perceive as the most influential elements of Club Aspire? Data collection tools consisted of interviews, class work, referral data, pre- and post-questionnaire and benchmark assessment data.

The study revealed that students made gains in self-regulation learning strategy usage, however, their academic achievement was not influenced. Students identified goal setting, learning self-regulation strategies and co-regulation activities with their peer partner as the most beneficial elements of Club Aspire. The study also revealed that student self-efficacy was increased throughout the semester.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

153276-Thumbnail Image.png

A novel engineering approach to modelling and optimizing smoking cessation interventions

Description

Cigarette smoking remains a major global public health issue. This is partially due to the chronic and relapsing nature of tobacco use, which contributes to the approximately 90% quit attempt

Cigarette smoking remains a major global public health issue. This is partially due to the chronic and relapsing nature of tobacco use, which contributes to the approximately 90% quit attempt failure rate. The recent rise in mobile technologies has led to an increased ability to frequently measure smoking behaviors and related constructs over time, i.e., obtain intensive longitudinal data (ILD). Dynamical systems modeling and system identification methods from engineering offer a means to leverage ILD in order to better model dynamic smoking behaviors. In this dissertation, two sets of dynamical systems models are estimated using ILD from a smoking cessation clinical trial: one set describes cessation as a craving-mediated process; a second set was reverse-engineered and describes a psychological self-regulation process in which smoking activity regulates craving levels. The estimated expressions suggest that self-regulation more accurately describes cessation behavior change, and that the psychological self-regulator resembles a proportional-with-filter controller. In contrast to current clinical practice, adaptive smoking cessation interventions seek to personalize cessation treatment over time. An intervention of this nature generally reflects a control system with feedback and feedforward components, suggesting its design could benefit from a control systems engineering perspective. An adaptive intervention is designed in this dissertation in the form of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) decision algorithm. This algorithm assigns counseling, bupropion, and nicotine lozenges each day to promote tracking of target smoking and craving levels. Demonstrated through a diverse series of simulations, this HMPC-based intervention can aid a successful cessation attempt. Objective function weights and three-degree-of-freedom tuning parameters can be sensibly selected to achieve intervention performance goals despite strict clinical and operational constraints. Such tuning largely affects the rate at which peak bupropion and lozenge dosages are assigned; total post-quit smoking levels, craving offset, and other performance metrics are consequently affected. Overall, the interconnected nature of the smoking and craving controlled variables facilitate the controller's robust decision-making capabilities, even despite the presence of noise or plant-model mismatch. Altogether, this dissertation lays the conceptual and computational groundwork for future efforts to utilize engineering concepts to further study smoking behaviors and to optimize smoking cessation interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

151181-Thumbnail Image.png

Effortful control and emotion understanding: relations with children's maladjustment, social competence, and adult-child relationships

Description

The present study examined the relations of children's effortful control (EC), emotion understanding, maladjustment, social competence, and relationship quality with nonparental caregivers in a sample of 30-, 42-, and 54-month

The present study examined the relations of children's effortful control (EC), emotion understanding, maladjustment, social competence, and relationship quality with nonparental caregivers in a sample of 30-, 42-, and 54-month olds. EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, as well as observed behavioral tasks. Emotion understanding was assessed by asking children to identify emotions during a puppet task. Mothers and caregivers also reported on children's problem behaviors and social competence. Caregivers provided reports of the quality of their relationship with children. Results from longitudinal structural equation models indicated that even after controlling for sex, SES, language ability, and previous levels of constructs, emotion understanding predicted EC one year later at 42 and 54 months. In addition, children with higher EC had more positive relationships with caregivers at 42 and 54 months. Although EC and EU were not significantly related to maladjustment and social competence after accounting for within time covariation among constructs and longitudinal stability, marginal findings were in expected directions and suggested that more regulated children with better emotion understanding skills had fewer behavioral problems and were more socially skilled. Findings are discussed in terms of the strengths and limitations of the present study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

157277-Thumbnail Image.png

Emerging self-regulation: contributing infant and maternal factors

Description

The ability to self-regulate is arguably the single most important skill a child develops early in life. Self-regulation skills are consistently linked to indices of health, success, and wellbeing. The

The ability to self-regulate is arguably the single most important skill a child develops early in life. Self-regulation skills are consistently linked to indices of health, success, and wellbeing. The predominating perspective in self-regulation developmental research has emphasized the role of the early caregiving environment, specifically maternal characteristics and behavior, in shaping infants’ emerging regulatory skills. Using two complementary studies, this dissertation draws from a longitudinal sample of 322 low-income, Mexican American mother-infant dyads to better understand mothers’ and infants’ unique roles in contributing to emerging infant regulatory processes. The first study explores the unique contributions of intrinsic (i.e., infant gaze) and extrinsic (i.e., maternal gaze) factors in understanding infant dysregulated emotion and behavior during mother-infant interactions. Using actor partner interdependent models (APIMs), the role of infant and maternal gaze in understanding infant dysregulation were examined longitudinally across three mother-infant interaction tasks (i.e., soothing, teaching, and peekaboo), as well as within task. The expected relations among gaze and dysregulation did not emerge in the longitudinal model; however, differential patterns of associations emerged by task. Findings are discussed within the intersection of risk, culture, and the dyadic interaction context.

The second study connects patterns of specific maternal behaviors (i.e., acknowledging, gaze, vocal appropriateness, appropriate range of affect, consistency of style, resourcefulness, and touch) associated with maternal sensitivity to infant cortisol reactivity and recovery. Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed four distinct combinations of maternal sensitivity behaviors. One pattern emerged as a risk profile—differentiated by higher maternal stress—and was associated with significantly more infant cortisol recovery compared to other profiles. Both studies offer a more nuanced understanding of the respective roles of infant and maternal factors in the development of self-regulation. Further explication of developmental processes involved in early regulatory functioning has implications for advancing both scientific knowledge and improved targeting of prevention and early intervention efforts to promote optimal child outcomes, particularly in populations that at increased risk for developmental psychopathology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019