Matching Items (55)

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Creating a Peer-Mediated Social Story for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

This project highlights the importance of students learning and applying social skills in educational settings for students with ASD. Social stories are one method used for students with autism spectrum

This project highlights the importance of students learning and applying social skills in educational settings for students with ASD. Social stories are one method used for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to integrate social skills instruction in classroom settings. Social stories are designed to help a child learn and respond to social cues for successful social interactions. Although, there is limited research on the effectiveness of social stories, research has demonstrated the effectiveness of peer-mediated learning and the effects of positive peer relationships in inclusive early childhood settings. This project draws on the evidence of peer- mediated learning through the medium of social stories to support students with ASD in school settings. This project is the creation of a double-sided social story picture book designed to teach prosocial peer interactions to students with ASD and to teach their peers to support them in learning the specific social skill. The target skill for this peer-mediated social story is learning how to interact with friends in the classroom by initiating and responding to requests to play. \r\nThe project is unique in that this social story includes a section for the student with ASD and a section to support the peer in their role within the social relationship.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports at Home: A Guide to Using Low Intensity Strategies to Promote Positive Behavior and Relationships within Families

Description

The purpose of this project was to create a resource for parents to introduce them to the PBIS framework that is used in many schools across the country, and to

The purpose of this project was to create a resource for parents to introduce them to the PBIS framework that is used in many schools across the country, and to three low-intensity positive behavior management strategies that can be utilized to prevent problem behaviors at school and home. The three strategies included in the resource are: behavior specific praise, precorrection, and high probability request sequences. All three of these strategies have been shown, through research, to help promote positive relationships between adults and children, and decreased problem behaviors when they are used in the classroom and school settings. Through a literature review that was conducted at the beginning of the project, it was found that there is very little research on the use of the three strategies by parents. This resource could potentially lead to more education and research being done on both the social validity of these strategies and their use in the home setting.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports at Home: A Guide to Using Low Intensity Strategies to Promote Positive Behavior and Relationships within Families

Description

The purpose of this project was to create a resource for parents to introduce them to the PBIS framework that is used in many schools across the country, and to

The purpose of this project was to create a resource for parents to introduce them to the PBIS framework that is used in many schools across the country, and to three low-intensity positive behavior management strategies that can be utilized to prevent problem behaviors at school and home. The three strategies included in the resource are: behavior specific praise, precorrection, and high probability request sequences. All three of these strategies have been shown, through research, to help promote positive relationships between adults and children, and decreased problem behaviors when they are used in the classroom and school settings. Through a literature review that was conducted at the beginning of the project, it was found that there is very little research on the use of the three strategies by parents. This resource could potentially lead to more education and research being done on both the social validity of these strategies and their use in the home setting.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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E-books and Emergent Literacy in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Dialogic Reading on Vocabulary Knowledge and Story Retell

Description

The incorporation of electronic books (e-books) into the classroom and home of young children has been shown to have positive effects on the acquisition of early literacy skills. Dialogic reading

The incorporation of electronic books (e-books) into the classroom and home of young children has been shown to have positive effects on the acquisition of early literacy skills. Dialogic reading methods, which include interactive conversations between caregiver and child about a story as it is being read, additionally are known to improve skills that lead to improved literacy during the school years. No research to date, however, has examined e-books and dialogic reading when used together. This study examines how using dialogic reading with a child reading an e-book will impact the acquisition of emergent literacy skills, particularly vocabulary knowledge and story recall ability. Twenty-three children aged 3 to 5 took part in a matched pairs experiment that included reading a select e-book four times in which half received a dialogic reading intervention. The children who received the intervention scored significantly higher in the story recall measure of the posttest than those in the control group. No differences were found between the experimental and control groups on the vocabulary measure, although mutual gains were found among both groups from the pretest to the posttest. The results suggest that dialogic reading when incorporated with e-books may improve a child's ability to recall a story. Further, the results indicate that repeated reading of the same e-book may increase vocabulary knowledge.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Mexican immigrants families' traditional and non-traditional language and literacy practices at home that prepare children for school in the United States

Description

This qualitative study investigates the at-home educational efforts of six immigrant families as they prepare their children for school in the United States. The participants’ at-home educational activities were provided

This qualitative study investigates the at-home educational efforts of six immigrant families as they prepare their children for school in the United States. The participants’ at-home educational activities were provided by the Mexican immigrant families using photographs of activities that they judged as skills which developed the child’s ability to engage with other children, teachers, and the curriculum on their first day at school. Photovoice methodology was used in order to provide the Mexican immigrants’ voice.

The families were recruited from a large urban city in the Southwest with a large immigrant population. They were recruited from medical centers, social support centers, churches with immigrant communities, and schools that had Mexican immigrant children in attendance. The schools and churches provided the greatest source of participants. The educational level of the parents varied from over fifteen years to three years of schooling in Mexico. The children in the study were citizens of the United States, were from two to four years of age, had not yet attended school in the U.S., but had siblings attending public schools in the United States. The families opened their life to the researcher and provided an insight through their photographs that could not have been gained if only interviews and/or questionnaires were used.

The twenty five photographs selected to identify the six educational themes that were highlighted throughout the study are demonstrative of what the families in the study were doing to prepare their children for their first day of school. Mexican immigrant parents have high expectations for their children and are willing to sacrifice for the children’s education.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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We Observe, We Reflect, We Research: Data-Driven, Job-Embedded Science Professional Development with Early Head Start Teachers

Description

The purpose of this action research was to understand how reflective, job-embedded early childhood science professional learning and development (PLD) impacted Early Head Start (EHS) teacher learning and their perceptions

The purpose of this action research was to understand how reflective, job-embedded early childhood science professional learning and development (PLD) impacted Early Head Start (EHS) teacher learning and their perceptions toward science with toddlers. Limited content knowledge and lack of formal preparation impact teachers’ understanding of developmentally appropriate science and their capacity to support children to develop science skills. In Arizona, limited availability of early childhood science coursework and no science-related PLD for toddler teachers showed the need for this project. Four literature themes were reviewed: teacher as researcher, how people learn, reflective PLD, and how young children develop scientific thinking skills.

The participants were nine EHS teachers who worked at the same Head Start program in five different classrooms in Arizona. The innovation included early childhood science workshops, collaboration and reflecting meetings (CPRM), and electronic correspondence. These were job-embedded, meaning they related to the teachers’ day-to-day work with toddlers. Qualitative data were collected through CPRM transcripts, pre/post-project interviews, and researcher journal entries. Data were analyzed using constant comparative method and grounded theory through open, focused, and selective coding.

Results showed that teachers learned about their pedagogy and the capacities of toddlers in their classrooms. Through reflective PLD meetings, teachers developed an understanding of toddlers’ abilities to engage with science. Teachers acquired and implemented teacher research skills and utilized the study of documentation to better understand children’s interests and abilities. They recognized the role of the teacher to provide open-ended materials and time. Moreover, teachers improved their comfort with science and enhanced their observational skills. The teachers then saw their role in supporting science as more active. The researcher concluded that the project helped address the problem of practice. Future research should consider job-embedded PLD as an important approach to supporting data-driven instructional practices and reflection about children’s capabilities and competencies.

Keywords: action research, Arizona Early Childhood Workforce Knowledge and Competencies, Arizona’s Infant and Toddler Developmental Guidelines (ITDG), documentation, early childhood science, Early Head Start (EHS), Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework (ELOF), inquiry, job-embedded, pedagogy, professional development (PD), reflective professional development, teacher as researcher, teacher research, toddler science

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Professional development in early childhood education: effects of a virtual community of practice on implementing best practices

Description

This mixed methods study examined whether participation in a virtual community of practice (vCoP) could impact the implementation of new skills learned in a professional development session and help to

This mixed methods study examined whether participation in a virtual community of practice (vCoP) could impact the implementation of new skills learned in a professional development session and help to close the research to implementation gap.

Six participants attended a common professional development session and completed pre- , mid- , and post-intervention surveys regarding their implementation of social emotional teaching strategies as well as face-to-face interviews.

Both quantitative and qualitative data was examined to determine if participation in the vCoP impacted implementation of skills learned in the PD session. Quantitative data was inconclusive but qualitative data showed an appreciation for participation in the vCoP and access to the resources shared by the participants. Limitations and implications for future cycles of research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Strengthening Relationships among Teachers and Caregivers in Early Care and Education: A Strategy to Prevent Expulsion

Description

Across contexts, researchers have exposed the immense impact that early childhood experiences and high-quality caregiver relationships have on a developing child, which has resulted in much motivation to increase the

Across contexts, researchers have exposed the immense impact that early childhood experiences and high-quality caregiver relationships have on a developing child, which has resulted in much motivation to increase the quality of early care and education (ECE) programs at a national level. Unfortunately, as research has revealed the positive influence that quality ECE has on a child’s ultimate outcomes, it has also shed light on a social problem that intricately affects society: preschool expulsion. To address this issue, several interventions have been created, however the teacher-caregiver relationship has yet to be a central point of solution. Therefore, a relational cultural communication training (RCCT) was developed to support teachers as they work with families whose children are at-risk for expulsion, and it served as the intervention that was studied in this action research project.

This mixed method action research study (MMAR) sought to examine the constructs of empathy and culture as they pertain to teacher-caregiver relationships from the vantage point of the eight ECE teachers that participated in this project. Specifically, interview transcripts and journals were qualitatively assessed to illuminate teacher perspectives on the roles that both culture and empathy play in relationships with caregivers whose children are at-risk for expulsion. Further, the study examined teacher attitudes towards engaging with caregivers before and after the RCCT intervention using interviews, journals and an evidence-based pre- and post-survey tool as data sources. Bioecological systems theory (BST) and relational cultural theory (RCT) framed the research questions that guided this project.

Results suggested that the RCCT was a useful intervention that supported ECE teachers in their ability to connect with caregivers whose children are at-risk. Particularly, findings revealed that (a) ECE teachers do feel that both empathy and culture influence their ability to connect with caregivers, (b) RCCT was helpful in shifting teacher practices with families from an empathy standpoint, and (c) cultural differences and negative interactions adversely informed a teacher’s relational capacity with caregivers, ultimately adversely affecting child outcomes. The discussion of these findings summarizes study conclusions and how they might inform practice, implications for future research and practice, and limitations to consider.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Multiple environmental risk and early Head Start Program efficacy

Description

This study investigated the efficacy of Early Head Start home-based, center-based and mixed-approach programs on cognitive, language and behavioral outcomes at different levels of cumulative environmental risk. Early Head Start

This study investigated the efficacy of Early Head Start home-based, center-based and mixed-approach programs on cognitive, language and behavioral outcomes at different levels of cumulative environmental risk. Early Head Start is a federal program that provides low-income families and their children from birth to age three with childcare, parenting education, healthcare and other family supports. As part of Early Head Start's initiation, a program evaluation was begun involving 3,001 children from 17 programs around the country. Half of the children were randomly assigned to the control group, who received no Early Head Start services. Data were collected through program application and enrollment forms, interviews of parents and child and family assessments. Almost all of the children's primary caretakers were mothers, ranging in age from 18 to 26. One-third were African American, one-third white, and one-fourth Hispanic. Almost half of the parents did not have a high school diploma at the time of enrollment, and most of the families received public support of some kind. For each child, a multiple environmental risk score was calculated, which was the sum of 10 possible environmental risks. Each of four outcomes was regressed onto the ten risks individually and also as a cumulative risk index along with program type and covariates. There were significant negative relations of accumulated risk to reductions in reasoning, spatial ability and vocabulary and increased behavior problems. Children with at least eight risks scored 1.48 standard deviations lower on reasoning ability and vocabulary, .48 standard deviations lower on spatial ability and .48 standard deviations higher on behavior problems. The home-based program showed significant benefit for reasoning and vocabulary. Versus the control group, home-based programs increased average reasoning scores by .24 of a standard deviation and increased vocabulary by .14 of a standard deviation. There was no significant difference in program benefits at different levels of risk. This suggests that for reasoning and vocabulary, the home-based program is promotive because the degree of benefit Early Head Start appears to provide is consistent across all levels of risk for the set of risks and outcomes examined in this study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The impact of a focused professional development project on the practices and career paths of early childhood education teachers

Description

ABSTRACT Early childhood education (ECE) teacher professional development refers to the various modalities of providing new and or additional content knowledge to the teachers who work with children birth to

ABSTRACT Early childhood education (ECE) teacher professional development refers to the various modalities of providing new and or additional content knowledge to the teachers who work with children birth to five. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an Arizona United Way-administered intervention project designed to provide focused professional development activities to 15 ECE teachers at seven high-need, center-based early care and education settings. Specifically, this study determined if these interventions influenced the teachers to undertake formative career path changes such as college coursework. In addition, the study also sought to understand the views, beliefs, and attitudes of these ECE teachers and if/how their perspectives influenced their educational career paths. Data were gathered through the triangulated use of participants' responses to a survey, face-to-face interviews, and a focus group. Findings demonstrate that the teachers understand that professional development, such as college coursework, can increase a person's knowledge on a given topic or field of study, but that they feel qualified to be a teacher for children birth to five even though 12 of the 15 teachers do not hold an AA/AAS or BA/BS degree in any area of study. Further, the teachers suggested that if they were to earn a degree it would most likely be in another field of study beside education. These responses provide another reason professional development efforts to encourage ECE teachers to seek degrees in the field of education may be failing. If ECE teachers wanted to invest time, energy and funds they would acquire a degree, which provided more financial reward and professional respect. 

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011