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Laypeople's Perceptions of Expert Bias in 26 Domains

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People often rely on experts' opinions and knowledge to inform their own decisions. This can be problematic, as expertise does not necessarily protect one from bias, and increased experience does not always increase an experts' accuracy (Cassidy & Buede, 2009;

People often rely on experts' opinions and knowledge to inform their own decisions. This can be problematic, as expertise does not necessarily protect one from bias, and increased experience does not always increase an experts' accuracy (Cassidy & Buede, 2009; Goldberg, 1968; Molins et al., 2008). The nature of task characteristics of expert domains is associated with experts' performance (Shanteau 1992). The purpose of this thesis is to examine how people perceive experts in different disciplines, and to explore the factors that affect perceptions of expert objectivity. Perceptions of objectivity in 26 expert domains were examined. As hypothesized, higher ratings of clear and immediate feedback available to experts were associated with higher ratings of objectivity. However, other indicators of higher domain validity were not recognized by laypeople, such as higher levels of training and education. Contrary to our hypotheses, higher levels of familiarity with experts in a given domain and more experiences of disagreement with experts in a given domain were not associated with perceptions of objectivity. These results suggest that laypeople can correctly identify some indicators of the validity of different expert domains, but they cannot identify others. These perceptions affect how objectivity is perceived.

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2017-12

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A Closer Look into the Best Value (BV) Approach to RFP Contract Negotiation

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With the help of some Information Measurement Theory (IMT), Kashiwagi Solutions Model (KSM), and deductive logic background, supply chain managers can start utilizing a new way to effectively and efficiently negotiate contracts. Developed by Dr. Dean Kashiwagi, the Best Value

With the help of some Information Measurement Theory (IMT), Kashiwagi Solutions Model (KSM), and deductive logic background, supply chain managers can start utilizing a new way to effectively and efficiently negotiate contracts. Developed by Dr. Dean Kashiwagi, the Best Value Approach has been 98% successful with over 1,800 projects for the past 20 years. The process gives vendors/suppliers the power to use their expertise. In return for not having to follow the rules set by the client/buyer, the vendor must show documentation and plans of risk management, value added processes, and metrics.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Perceptual Training for Sensor Operators: Scenario Development

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Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become a major threat to military personnel in recent years. In the United States Army, Mission Payload Operators (MPOs) operate cameras from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to detect the threat of IEDs using real-time images

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become a major threat to military personnel in recent years. In the United States Army, Mission Payload Operators (MPOs) operate cameras from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to detect the threat of IEDs using real-time images received. Previous researchers obtained the expert knowledge of twelve MPOs at Fort Huachuca and learned that they rely on "behavioral signatures," the behavioral and environmental cues associated with IED threat rather than the IED itself (Cooke, Hosch, Banas, Hunn, Staszewski & Fensterer, 2010). To the best of our knowledge, no formal MPO training exists and all training is acquired on-the-job. The end goal is to create training systems for future MPOs using cognitive engineering based on expert skill (CEBES) that focus on detection of behavioral cues associated with IED threats. The complexity and dynamicity of cues associated with IED emplacement is to be noted, as such cues are influenced by sociocultural knowledge and often develop over significant periods of time. A dynamic full motion video simulation environment has been created, and embedded with cues elicited from expert MPOs. A three-part simulation has been created. The next step is verifying critical cues MPOs identify and focus on using eye tracking equipment.

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Date Created
2014-12

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Techne and Virtue - Plato's Understanding of Moral Truth

Description

I will examine the relation between techne and virtue as it appears in Plato‘s dialogues and suggest that in order to adequately confront our greatest political and social challenges our understanding must move beyond mere scientific and technical knowledge and

I will examine the relation between techne and virtue as it appears in Plato‘s dialogues and suggest that in order to adequately confront our greatest political and social challenges our understanding must move beyond mere scientific and technical knowledge and our practices must move beyond the political art taught by Gorgias and Protagoras. It is my belief that the Platonic conception of virtue and the political art that aims toward that conception of virtue offer a paradigm that can help remedy today‘s arguably technocratic political condition. I begin this work by exploring the nature of techne as it was understood in ancient Greece, and arguing (contra Irwin) that Plato did not hold a technical conception of justice. Whereas each techne establishes an eidos (idea, form, blueprint) in advance, which can be clearly known and uniformly applied in each particular case, I argue that Plato‘s conception of justice leaves all substantive content to be filled out in each concrete situation, precluding the possibility of the anticipatory disposition that techne affords and demanding a certain degree of deliberation in each situation, with attention paid to the unique aspects of each particular set of circumstances. I argue that this conception of justice informs Plato's notion of a "political art" and suggest that this art requires constant attention to the unique attributes of each particular situation in which we find ourselves, and that the pre-interpretive prejudice of many modern ideologies and political-economic perspectives hinders our ability to see the particularity in each situation and thereby reduces our capacity for achieving justice in the historically-situated, concrete moment within which we always must act.

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Date Created
2015-05