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Continuous Enzymatic Detection of Traumatic Brain Injury

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My main goal for my thesis is in conjunction with the research I started in the summer of 2010 regarding the creation of a TBI continuous-time sensor. Such goals include: characterizing the proteins in sensing targets while immobilized, while free in solution, and while in free solution in the blood.

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Date Created
2011-12

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MEMBRANE IMPROVEMENTS FOR WHOLE BLOOD DETECTION OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

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The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate glutamate oxidase's ability to detect levels of glutamate as part of a working sensor capable of quantifying and detecting stress within the body in the case of adverse neurological events such as traumatic brain injury. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a linear dynamic range of glutamate was detected with a slope of 36.604 z/ohm/[pg/mL], a lower detection limit at 12.417 pg/mL, correlation of 0.97, and an optimal binding frequency of 117.20 Hz. After running through a frequency sweep the binding frequency was determined based on the highest consistent reproducibility and slope. The sensor was found to be specific against literature researched non-targets glucose, albumin, and epinephrine and working in dilutions of whole blood up to a concentration of 25%. With the implementation of Nafion, the sensor had a 250% improvement in signal and 155% improvement in correlation in 90% whole blood, illustrating the promise of a working blood sensor. Future work includes longitudinal studies and utilizing mesoporous carbon as the immobilization platform and incorporating this as part of a continuous, multiplexed blood sensor with glucose oxidase.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Project Build-A-Hero: Enhancing Biomedical Engineering as a Socially Relevant Discipline

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The goal of this research study was to empirically study a poster-based messaging campaign in comparison to that of a project-based learning approach in assessing the effectiveness of these methods in conveying the scope of biomedical engineering to upper elementary

The goal of this research study was to empirically study a poster-based messaging campaign in comparison to that of a project-based learning approach in assessing the effectiveness of these methods in conveying the scope of biomedical engineering to upper elementary school students. For the purpose of this honors thesis, this research paper specifically reflects and analyzes the first stage of this study, the poster-based messaging campaign. 6th grade students received socially relevant messaging of juniors and seniors at ASU achieving their biomedical aspirations, and received information regarding four crucial themes of biomedical engineering via daily presentations and a website. Their learning was tracked over the course of the weeklong immersion program through a pre/post assessment. This data was then analyzed through the Wilcoxon matched pairs test to determine whether the change in biomedical engineering awareness was statistically significant. It was determined that a poster-based messaging campaign indeed increased awareness of socially relevant themes within biomedical engineering, and provided researchers with tangible ways to revise the study before a second round of implementation. The next stage of the study aims to explain biomedical engineering through engaging activities that stimulate making while emphasizing design-aesthetic appeal and engineering habits of mind such as creativity, teamwork, and communication.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Multimarker Sensor Development for Intermediate Glycemic Index, A Novel Approach for a Glycated Albumin Sensor

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Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by many chronic and acute conditions. With the prevalence and cost quickly increasing, we seek to improve on the current standard of care and create a rapid, label free sensor for glycated albumin (GA)

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by many chronic and acute conditions. With the prevalence and cost quickly increasing, we seek to improve on the current standard of care and create a rapid, label free sensor for glycated albumin (GA) index using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The antibody, anti-HA, was fixed to gold electrodes and a sine wave of sweeping frequencies was induced with a range of HA, GA, and GA with HA concentrations. Each frequency in the impedance sweep was analyzed for highest response and R-squared value. The frequency with both factors optimized is specific for both the antibody-antigen binding interactions with HA and GA and was determined to be 1476 Hz and 1.18 Hz respectively in purified solutions. The correlation slope between the impedance response and concentration for albumin (0 \u2014 5400 mg/dL of albumin) was determined to be 72.28 ohm/ln(mg/dL) with an R-square value of 0.89 with a 2.27 lower limit of detection. The correlation slope between the impedance response and concentration for glycated albumin (0 \u2014 108 mg/dL) was determined to be -876.96 ohm/ln(mg/dL) with an R-squared value of 0.70 with a 0.92 mg/dL lower limit of detection (LLD). The above data confirms that EIS offers a new method of GA detection by providing unique correlation with albumin as well as glycated albumin. The unique frequency response of GA and HA allows for modulation of alternating current signals so that several other markers important in the management of diabetes could be measured with a single sensor. Future work will be necessary to establish multimarker sensing on one electrode.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Developing an Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-Based Insulin Sensor

Description

Currently, the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) involves the monitoring of only blood glucose using self-monitoring blood glucose devices (SMBGs) followed by taking interventional steps, if needed. To increase the amount of information that diabetics can have to base DM

Currently, the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) involves the monitoring of only blood glucose using self-monitoring blood glucose devices (SMBGs) followed by taking interventional steps, if needed. To increase the amount of information that diabetics can have to base DM care decisions off of, the development of an insulin biosensor is explored. Such a biosensor incorporates electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to ensure an extremely sensitive platform. Additionally, anti-insulin antibody was immobilized onto the surface of a gold disk working electrode to ensure a highly specific sensing platform as well. EIS measurements were completed with a 5mV sine wave that was swept through the frequency spectrum of 100 kHz to 1 Hz on concentrations of insulin ranging from 0 pM to 100 μM. The frequency at which the interaction between insulin and its antibody was optimized was determined by finding out at which frequency the R2 and slope of the impedance-concentration plot were best. This frequency, otherwise known as the optimal binding frequency, was determined to be 459 Hz. Three separate electrodes were developed and the impedance data for each concentration measured at 459 Hz was averaged and plotted against the LOG (pM insulin) to construct the calibration curve. The response was calculated to be 263.64 ohms/LOG(pM insulin) with an R2 value of 0.89. Additionally, the average RSD was determined to be 19.24% and the LLD was calculated to be 8.47 pM, which is well below the physiological normal range. These results highlight the potential success of developing commercial point-of-care insulin biosensors or multi-marker devices operating with integrated insulin detection.

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Date Created
2013-05

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A rapid and Label-free IL-18 point-of-care biosensor for CVD detection

Description

Development of a rapid and label-free Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) biosensor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) detection based on Inerluekin-18 (IL-18) sensitivity was proposed to fill the technology gap between rapid and portable CVD point-of-care diagnosis. IL-18 was chosen for this

Development of a rapid and label-free Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) biosensor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) detection based on Inerluekin-18 (IL-18) sensitivity was proposed to fill the technology gap between rapid and portable CVD point-of-care diagnosis. IL-18 was chosen for this CVD biosensor due to its ability to detect plaque vulnerability of the heart. Custom (hand) made sensors, which utilized a three electrode configuration with a gold disk working electrode, were created to run EIS using both IL-18 and anti-IL-18 molecules in both purified and blood solutions. The EIS results for IL-18 indicated the optimal detection frequency to be 371Hz. Blood interaction on the working electrode increased the dynamic range of impedance values for the biosensor. Future work includes Developing and testing prototypes of the biosensor along with determining if a Nafion based coating on the working electrode will reduce the dynamic range of impedance values caused by blood interference.

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Date Created
2013-05

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Electrochemical Detection of Estradiol for the Development of a Fertility Sensor

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In this paper, β-estradiol was characterized utilizing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques for the purpose of developing a multi-marker fertility sensor. β-estradiol was immobilized onto the surface of gold disk electrodes to find the optimal binding frequency of estradiol and

In this paper, β-estradiol was characterized utilizing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques for the purpose of developing a multi-marker fertility sensor. β-estradiol was immobilized onto the surface of gold disk electrodes to find the optimal binding frequency of estradiol and its respective antibody, anti-17β-estradiol, which was determined to be 37.46Hz. At this frequency a logarithmic relationship between concentration and impedance (Z/ohm) was established creating a concentration calibration curve with a slope of 211 ohm/ln(pg mL-1), an R-squared value of 0.986 and a lower limit of detection of 742 fg mL-1. The specificity and cross-reactivity of the antibody with other hormones was tested through interferent and non-target experiments. Signal-to-noise ratio analysis verified that anti-17β-estradiol exhibited minimal chemical reactions with other hormones (SNR< 3) in non-target experiments. Additionally, there were minimal changes in the amount of signal collected during interferent testing, with albumin and follicle stimulating hormone having SNR values greater than 3. These results, along with the unique frequency response of the antibody-target binding reaction, allow for the possibility of using anti-17β-estradiol and β-estradiol for detecting multiple fertility biomarkers on a single sensor.

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Date Created
2014-05