Matching Items (7)

134129-Thumbnail Image.png

Using kinematic data to identify movement patterns shared between tasks: A way to explain transfer

Description

In motor training, transfer is defined as the gain/loss of performance in one task as a result of training on another. In our laboratory, we have observed that training on

In motor training, transfer is defined as the gain/loss of performance in one task as a result of training on another. In our laboratory, we have observed that training on a multi-joint coordination task (which simulates arm and wrist movement when feeding) transfers to a dexterity task (which simulates finger and hand movement when dressing), such that there are improvements in the dexterity task that emerge without having trained on that specific task. More recently, we have shown that the dexterity task transfers to the multi-joint coordination task. These collective findings suggest that there are shared movement patterns between these two functional motor tasks that may yield this bi-directional transfer effect. Therefore, the objective of this thesis project was to collect kinematic data of the hand to use in future principal component analyses to better understand the underlying mechanism of transfer between these two functional motor tasks. The joint angles of the hand were recorded during twenty second trials of the multi-joint coordination task and the dexterity task. The ranges of motion for the joints in the hand during naïve performance of both motor tasks were analyzed. From a linear regression analysis, we observe that the hand’s ranges of motion were strongly correlated between the two tasks, which suggests that these two functionally different tasks may share movement patterns in terms of joint angles. This similarity of joint angles of the hand may play a role in why we observe this bi-directional transfer between the dexterity and multi-joint coordination tasks. Following neurological injury, patients participate in physical therapy in order to retrain their nervous system to restore lost motor function(s). If patients can only practice a limited number of activities in therapy, our data suggest that other activities may also improve through transfer of training. Kinematic data collection may inform how much a patient improves with motor training and why there may be an improvement in untrained motor tasks.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

148173-Thumbnail Image.png

Breakdown and classification of skill transfer type between a hockey slap shot and golf drive

Description

There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to

There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to send the ball / puck towards a target, but does that directly translate to positive skill transfer between the two sports, or are there other important factors that could result in a negative skill transfer? The aim of this study is to look further into the two kinematic sequences and determine their intertask skill transfer type. A field experiment was conducted, following a specific research design, in order to compare performance between two groups, one being familiar with the skill that may transfer (hockey slapshot) and the other group being unfamiliar. Both groups had no experience in the skill being tested (driving golf swing) and various data was collected as all of the subjects performed 10 golf swings. The results of the data analysis showed that the group with experience in hockey had a higher variability of ball distance and ball speed. There are many factors of a hockey slapshot that are likely to develop a negative intertask skill transfer, resulting in this group's high inconsistency when performing a golf swing. On the other hand, the group with hockey experience also had higher mean club speed, showing that some aspects of the hockey slapshot resulted in a positive skill transfer, aiding their ability to perform a golf swing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

156545-Thumbnail Image.png

Relationship between Motor Generalization and Motor Transfer

Description

Adapting to one novel condition of a motor task has been shown to generalize to other naïve conditions (i.e., motor generalization). In contrast, learning one task affects the proficiency of

Adapting to one novel condition of a motor task has been shown to generalize to other naïve conditions (i.e., motor generalization). In contrast, learning one task affects the proficiency of another task that is altogether different (i.e. motor transfer). Much more is known about motor generalization than about motor transfer, despite of decades of behavioral evidence. Moreover, motor generalization is studied as a probe to understanding how movements in any novel situations are affected by previous experiences. Thus, one could assume that mechanisms underlying transfer from trained to untrained tasks may be same as the ones known to be underlying motor generalization. However, the direct relationship between transfer and generalization has not yet been shown, thereby limiting the assumption that transfer and generalization rely on the same mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between motor generalization and motor transfer. To date, ten healthy young adult subjects were scored on their motor generalization ability and motor transfer ability on various upper extremity tasks. Although our current sample size is too small to clearly identify whether there is a relationship between generalization and transfer, Pearson product-moment correlation results and a priori power analysis suggest that a significant relationship will be observed with an increased sample size by 30%. If so, this would suggest that the mechanisms of transfer may be similar to those of motor generalization.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

153434-Thumbnail Image.png

Wireless power transfer

Description

A new loop configuration capable of reducing power radiation magnitudes lower than conventional loops has been developed. This configuration is demonstrated for the case of two coaxial loops of 0.1

A new loop configuration capable of reducing power radiation magnitudes lower than conventional loops has been developed. This configuration is demonstrated for the case of two coaxial loops of 0.1 meter radius coupled via the magnetic reactive field. Utilizing electromagnetism theory, techniques from antenna design and a new near field design initiative, the ability to design a magnetic field has been investigated by using a full wave simulation tool. The method for realization is initiated from first order physics model, ADS and onto a full wave situation tool for the case of a non-radiating helical loop. The exploration into the design of a magnetic near field while mitigating radiation power is demonstrated using an real number of twists to form a helical wire loop while biasing the integer twisted loop in a non-conventional moebius termination. The helix loop setup as a moebius loop convention can also be expressed as a shorted antenna scheme. The 0.1 meter radius helix antenna is biased with a 1MHz frequency that categorized the antenna loop as electrically small. It is then demonstrated that helical configuration reduces the electric field and mitigates power radiation into the far field. In order to compare the radiated power reduction performance of the helical loop a shielded loop is used as a baseline for comparison. The shielded loop system of the same geometric size and frequency is shown to have power radiation expressed as -46.1 dBm. The power radiated mitigation method of the helix loop reduces the power radiated from the two loop system down to -98.72 dBm.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

156836-Thumbnail Image.png

Utilizing the prospect of transfer to increase academic engagement in high school equivalency students within a wicked problems framework

Description

This study examined the influence of perceived transfer of learning on student engagement, completion rates, and attendance hours of high school equivalency (HSE) students within a Wicked Problems Framework. Local

This study examined the influence of perceived transfer of learning on student engagement, completion rates, and attendance hours of high school equivalency (HSE) students within a Wicked Problems Framework. Local research had shown that over 30% of HSE students stopped attending HSE classes prior to completing 40 instructional hours, and many students cited a lack of relevant, “real-world” application, and the need to pursue employment as the two most common reasons that they stopped attending.

To address this issue, an innovation was developed and deployed for one semester at the Rio Salado College Avondale location. The innovation identified the individual career interests of each student in a treatment group, then worked with industry experts in those career fields to develop PowerPoint slides explaining how each HSE math lesson would directly transfer to the student’s career of interest. In addition, hiring managers from each career field that the students expressed interest in visited the class to discuss the need for HSE math skills and to answer any questions about their career and the transferability of what the students were learning.

The treatment groups’ attendance hours, completion rates, and self-reported engagement were examined and compared all other HSE math classes at Rio Salado College that took place during the same semester, as well as compared to the instructor of the innovation’s previous math classes. The results showed that students who participated in the innovation had, on average, over 38 more attendance hours than students who did not receive the innovation during the same semester and over 44 more attendance hours than the instructor’s previous classes at the same location. In addition, students who participated in the innovation reported higher engagement and enjoyment in the class than in similar HSE classes that they had previously taken.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

150233-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling the TyrZ-His 190 pair of photosystem II for the study of proton coupled electron transfer

Description

The work described in the thesis involves the synthesis of a molecular triad which is designed to undergo proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) upon irradiation with light. Photoinduced PCET is

The work described in the thesis involves the synthesis of a molecular triad which is designed to undergo proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) upon irradiation with light. Photoinduced PCET is an important process that many organisms use and the elucidation of its mechanism will allow further understanding of this process and its potential applications. The target compound designed for PCET studies consists of a porphyrin chromophore (also a primary electron donor), covalently linked to a phenol-imidazole (secondary electron donor), and a C60 (primary electron acceptor). The phenol-imidazole moiety of this system is modeled after the TyrZ His-190 residues in the reaction center of Photosystem II (PS II). These residues participate in an intermolecular H-bond between the phenol side chain of TyrZ and the imidazole side chain of His-190. The phenol side chain of TyrZ is the electron transfer mediator between the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) and P680 (primary electron donor) in PSII. During electron transfer from TyrZ to P680*+, the phenolic proton of TyrZ becomes highly acidic (pKa~-2) and the hydrogen is preferentially transferred to the relatively basic imidazole of His-190 through a pre-existing hydrogen bond. This PCET process avoids a charged intermediate, on TyrZ, and results in a neutral phenolic radical (TyrZ*). The current research consists of building a molecular triad, which can mimic the photoinduced PCET process of PSII. The following, documents the synthetic progress in the synthesis of a molecular triad designed to investigate the mechanism of PCET as well as gain further insight on how this process can be applied in artificial photosynthetic devices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

152061-Thumbnail Image.png

The limitations and extent of category generalization within a partially learned hierarchical structure

Description

Most people are experts in some area of information; however, they may not be knowledgeable about other closely related areas. How knowledge is generalized to hierarchically related categories was explored.

Most people are experts in some area of information; however, they may not be knowledgeable about other closely related areas. How knowledge is generalized to hierarchically related categories was explored. Past work has found little to no generalization to categories closely related to learned categories. These results do not fit well with other work focusing on attention during and after category learning. The current work attempted to merge these two areas of by creating a category structure with the best chance to detect generalization. Participants learned order level bird categories and family level wading bird categories. Then participants completed multiple measures to test generalization to old wading bird categories, new wading bird categories, owl and raptor categories, and lizard categories. As expected, the generalization measures converged on a single overall pattern of generalization. No generalization was found, except for already learned categories. This pattern fits well with past work on generalization within a hierarchy, but do not fit well with theories of dimensional attention. Reasons why these findings do not match are discussed, as well as directions for future research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013