Matching Items (11)

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Testing the Anti-Glycemic Effect of Commercial Apple Cider Vinegar Pills

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A recent meta-analysis concluded that vinegar consumption could be considered effective adjunct therapy for improving glycemic control. Glycemic control strategies are useful for diabetic and pre-diabetic patients as a way

A recent meta-analysis concluded that vinegar consumption could be considered effective adjunct therapy for improving glycemic control. Glycemic control strategies are useful for diabetic and pre-diabetic patients as a way of managing the symptoms of disease. However, liquid vinegar consumption is often poorly tolerated and ingestion can invoke nausea. This pilot study examined the effect of liquid vinegar versus commercial vinegar pills on postprandial glycemia in 12 healthy adults. All participants were healthy with fasting blood glucose averaging 91mg/dl. This study examined the efficacy of liquid vinegar ingestion (25 g apple cider vinegar [1.25 g acetic acid]) versus vinegar pill ingestion (4 vinegar tablets [1.5 g acetic acid] either consumed whole or crushed and then dissolved in water) on postprandial glycemia. At 30 minutes following a standard test meal (bagel + jelly + juice; 106 g carbohydrate), blood glucose concentrations were reduced 12% in comparison to the pill groups or to a no vinegar control (135.6±15.8, 154.3±22.2, 152.7±30.6, and 157.7±22.8 mg/dl for the liquid vinegar, whole pill, crushed pill, and control groups respectively; p=0.023). These data suggest that in healthy adults, four commercial vinegar pills with a reported acetic acid content of 1.5 g acetic acid are not effective for improving glycemic control.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Modifications of the urinary metabolome in college students after 4-weeks of daily vinegar ingestion that resulted in reductions in depression scores

Description

Depression is a worldwide public health problem that affects millions of people every year. Due to recent reports that depressed individuals have an altered gut microbiome composition, there is speculation

Depression is a worldwide public health problem that affects millions of people every year. Due to recent reports that depressed individuals have an altered gut microbiome composition, there is speculation that treatments that influence microorganisms in the gut could potentially lead to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Apple cider vinegar has been studied extensively for its health-promoting properties and benefits. Apple cider vinegar’s main ingredient is the short chain fatty acid, acetic acid. Short chain fatty acids have been shown to improve mood state and depressive symptoms, as well as amplify the effect of prebiotics in restoring the gut microbiome. This experimental design study examined the effects of ingesting 2 tbsp. apple cider vinegar (1 g acetic acid) twice daily with a meal on the levels of urinary metabolites in 14 college students compared to a control group of 11 college students that took one vinegar supplement tablet (0.015 g of acetic acid) daily for 28 days. All participants were healthy, normal to underactive (< 300 minutes of moderate exercise a week), and free of chronic or acute illnesses. Urinary metabolite analysis revealed a significant production of enzymes involved in the hexosamine pathway in the liquid vinegar group compared to baseline levels. However, anticipation of an alteration in tryptophan metabolites, a possible consequence of altered metabolism of gut microflora, was not observed. These data suggest that apple cider vinegar might be a potential treatment for depression through the production of hexosamine pathway enzymes.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Effect of Vinegar Consumption on Mood State

Description

The various health benefits of vinegar ingestion have been studied extensively in the<br/>literature. Moreover, emerging research suggests vinegar may also have an effect on mental<br/>health. Beneficial effects of certain diets

The various health benefits of vinegar ingestion have been studied extensively in the<br/>literature. Moreover, emerging research suggests vinegar may also have an effect on mental<br/>health. Beneficial effects of certain diets on mood have been reported, however, the mechanisms<br/>are unknown. The current study aimed to determine if vinegar ingestion positively affects mood<br/>state in healthy young adults. This was a randomized, single blinded controlled trial consisting of<br/>25 subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to either the vinegar group (consumed 2<br/>tablespoons of liquid vinegar diluted in one cup water twice daily with meals) or the control<br/>group (consumed one vinegar pill daily with a meal), and the intervention lasted 4 weeks.<br/>Subjects completed mood questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. Results showed a significant<br/>improvement in CES-D and POMS-Depression scores for the vinegar group compared to the<br/>control. This study suggests that vinegar ingestion may improve depressive symptoms in healthy<br/>young adults.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Examining the Effect of Vinegar on Glucose Response

Description

The objective of this randomized, single-blind crossover study was to examine the effect of vinegar on the blood glucose response to meal ingestion. This study was associated with a

The objective of this randomized, single-blind crossover study was to examine the effect of vinegar on the blood glucose response to meal ingestion. This study was associated with a companion study Is Apple Cider Vinegar Effective for Reducing Heartburn Symptoms Related to Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Glucose meters were utilized to measure blood glucose levels immediately prior to, and at four ½ hour intervals following meal ingestion. Previous studies have demonstrated that vinegar modulates the meal-time glucose response. Hence an alternative hypothesis was used: that a significant difference will be observed between the control and the vinegar groups. The results from the study were not significant likely due to a small sample size. The test meal eaten with a drink composed of vinegar diluted in water appeared to be most effective at decreasing the overall change in postprandial blood glucose. The vinegar drink also played a role in decreasing the peak glucose level at 30 minutes post-meal.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Reduction of visceral fat in response to consumption of red wine vinegar

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Objectives: To investigate the potential of vinegar supplementation as a means for reducing visceral fat in healthy overweight and obese adults, and to evaluate its effects on fasting blood glucose

Objectives: To investigate the potential of vinegar supplementation as a means for reducing visceral fat in healthy overweight and obese adults, and to evaluate its effects on fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin.

Subjects and Methods: Forty-five sedentary overweight and obese adult participants with a waist circumference greater than 32 inches for women and 37 inches for men were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the vinegar group (VIN, n=21) or the control group (CON, n=24), and instructed to consume either two tablespoons of liquid red wine vinegar (3.6g acetic acid) or a control pill (0.0225g acetic acid) twice daily at the beginning of a meal for 8 weeks. Participants were also instructed to maintain normal diet and physical activity levels. Anthropometric measures, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, blood samples, and 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at baseline and at end of trial. A compliance calendar was provided for daily tracking of vinegar supplementation.

Results: Compliance to vinegar supplementation averaged 92.7 ±13.3% among the VIN group and 89.1 ±18.9% among the CON group. There were no statistically significant differences in anthropometric measurements between baseline and week 8: weight (P=0.694), BMI (P=0.879), and waist circumference (P=0.871). Similarly, DXA scan data did not show significant changes in visceral fat (P=0.339) or total fat (P=0.294) between baseline and week 8. The VIN group had significant reductions in fasting glucose (P=0.003), fasting insulin (P <0.001), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance scores (P <0.001) after treatment.

Conclusions: These data do not support the findings from previous studies that indicated a link between vinegar supplementation and increased fat metabolism, specifically visceral fat reduction.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Developing the optimal vinaigrette dressing for managing blood glucose concentrations

Description

Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown.

Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride

Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown.

Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride and describe a flavorful vinaigrette that maintains the functional properties of acetic acid.

Design: Phase I - Ten healthy subjects (23-40 years) taste tested five homemade vinaigrette and five commercial dressings. Perceived saltiness, sweetness, tartness, and overall tasted were scored using a modified labeled affective magnitude scale. Each dressing was tested three times for pH with a calibrated meter. Phase II – Randomized crossover trial testing six dressings against a control dressing two groups of nine healthy adult subjects (18-52 years). Height, weight and calculated body mass index (BMI) were performed at baseline. Subjects participated in four test sessions each, at least seven days apart. After a 10-hour fast, participants consumed 38g of the test drink, followed by a bagel meal. Capillary blood glucose was obtained at fasting, and every 30 minutes over a 2-hour period the test meal.

Results: Dressing pH reduced as sodium content increased. In the intervention trials, no significant differences were observed between groups (p >0.05). The greatest reduction in postprandial glycemia (~21%) was observed in the dressing containing 200 mg of sodium. Effect size was large in both group 1 (η2=0.161) and group 2 (η2=0.577).

Conclusion: The inclusion of sodium into acetic acid may impair its ability to attenuate blood glucose after a meal.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Effects of vinegar on colonic fermentation and glycemia

Description

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population,

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to avoid exercise, alcohol and smoking the day prior to their trials and to consume a standardized, high-carbohydrate dinner meal the eve prior. There was a one-week washout period per subject between appointments. Breath hydrogen, serum insulin and capillary glucose were assessed over 3 hours after a high-starch breakfast meal to evaluate the impact of preprandial supplementation with ACV or placebo (water). Findings confirmed the antiglycemic effects of ACV as documented in previous studies, with significantly lower mean blood glucose concentrations observed during ACV treatment compared to the placebo at 30 min (p=0.003) and 60 min (p=0.005), and significantly higher mean blood glucose concentrations at 180 min (p=0.045) postprandial. No significant differences in insulin concentrations between treatments. No significant differences were found between treatments (p>0.05) for breath hydrogen; however, a trend was observed between the treatments at 180 min postprandial where breath hydrogen concentration was visually perceived as being higher with ACV treatment compared to the placebo. Therefore, this study failed to support the hypothesis that preprandial ACV ingestion produces a higher rate of colonic fermentation within a 3 hour time period following a high-carbohydrate meal. Due to variations in experiment duration noted in other literature, an additional study of similar nature with an expanded specimen collections period, well beyond 3 hours, is warranted.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Colonic fermentation as a byproduct of vinegar consumption: a parallel arm randomized control trial in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes

Description

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this study was to examine a possible mechanism by which vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia, particularly the effect of vinegar ingestion on gut fermentation. In this parallel arm randomized control trial, the effects of daily ingestion of vinegar on gut fermentation markers were observed among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n=14) were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of a vinegar drink (1.5g acetic acid) or a placebo (2 vinegar pills containing 40mg acetic acid each). All participants were required to consume the vinegar drink (16 oz) or 2 placebo pills every day for 12 weeks. At week 12, participants filled out a questionnaire to report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and three consecutive breath samples were taken from each subject to measure fasting breath hydrogen (BH2) with a breath analyzer. Fasting BH2 measures for the vinegar drink group (16.1+11.8 ppm) were significantly different than those from the pill group (3.6+1.4) with a partial eta squared of 0.39 (p=0.023). After adjusting for age as a confounding factor (r=0.406) and removing an outlier, fasting BH2 measures for the vinegar drink group (4.3+1.1 ppm) were still significantly different than those from the pill group (3.6+1.4) with a partial eta squared of 0.35 (p=0.045). Participants in both groups reported mild changes in GI symptoms. In conclusion, adults at risk for type 2 diabetes that consume 2 tablespoons of vinegar a day may have increased gut fermentation compared to those who do not consume vinegar.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Is apple cider vinegar effective for reducing heartburn symptoms related to gastroesophageal reflux disease?

Description

Drinking vinegar is a popularly discussed remedy for relieving heartburn symptom, as can be read on many websites; however, there has been no scientific research or theory to support its

Drinking vinegar is a popularly discussed remedy for relieving heartburn symptom, as can be read on many websites; however, there has been no scientific research or theory to support its efficacy. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over research study tested the efficacy of the organic apple cider vinegar, with mother, on alleviation of the heartburn symptom related to Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). A minimum of one week separated the four trial arms: chili (placebo), antacid after chili meal (positive control), vinegar added to chili, and diluted vinegar after chili meal. Twenty grams of vinegar were used in both vinegar treatments, and 10 grams of liquid antacid were used in the antacid trial. A five-point Likert scale and a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to assess heartburn severity during a 120 minutes testing time. Seven of 15 recruited subjects' data was usable for statistical analysis (age: 39.6 ± 12.2 y, body mass index (BMI): 29.4 ± 4.2 kg/m2, waist circumference: 36.4 ± 4.1 inch). There was no statistically significant difference among the mean and incremental area-under-the-curve (iAUC) heartburn scores among different trials (Likert scale questionnaire p= .259, VAS questionnaire p= .659, iAUC Likert scale p= .184, iAUC VAS p= .326). Seven participants were further divided into antacid responder (n=4) and antacid non-responder groups (n=3). Likert scale mean heartburn score and iAUC data in antacid responder group had significant finding (p= .034 and p= .017 respectively). The significance lay between antacid and 'vinegar added to chili' trials. Effect size was also used to interpret data due to the small sample size: Likert scale: mean heartburn score= .444, iAUC= .425; VAS mean heartburn score= .232, iAUC .611. Effect size for antacid responder group was Likert scale: mean heartburn score= .967, iAUC= .936. Future research is needed to examine whether ingesting organic vinegar benefits alleviation of heartburn symptom related to GERD for people who do not respond well to antacid.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Visceral fat reduction in response to red wine vinegar consumption

Description

To date, there have not been any studies in a human population that explore the potential of vinegar ingestion in reducing visceral fat, a common yet serious metabolic disease risk

To date, there have not been any studies in a human population that explore the potential of vinegar ingestion in reducing visceral fat, a common yet serious metabolic disease risk factor. However, previous research in animal models exhibit promising findings, showing that vinegar is effective at reducing visceral fat. This is thought to be due to the activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate protein kinase) by acetic acid, the active ingredient in vinegar. The purpose of this study was to identify if this potentially groundbreaking relationship exists in human subjects. Healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary adults between the ages 18-45 y and a waist circumference measurement greater than or equal to 33 inches for women and 38 inches for men were recruited for this study. Twenty-three participants completed this 8-week, parallel arm, randomized control trial that tested the efficacy of red wine vinegar consumption (2 tablespoons red wine vinegar, twice per day, before a meal; providing 3.6 g acetic acid) against a placebo (1 apple cider vinegar pill, twice per day, before a meal; providing 0.0225 g acetic acid) for 8 weeks. Participants were randomized into either the vinegar (VIN) or control (CON) group after being stratified by age, gender, waist circumference, and weight. Results found that the VIN group experienced a 2% decrease in visceral fat (cm3, quantified by a DXA scan), but this change did not differ significantly from that of the CON group (p=0.256). The VIN group also experienced a slight decrease in insulin compared to the CON group, but this change was not significantly different than the control change (p=0.125). However, the change in HOMA-IR trended downward in the VIN group (-16%) as compared to the CON group (+9%) (p=0.079) with a large effect size, 0.153. Other parameters did not show statistically significant results between the groups. Further research is indicated in order to examine the potential of vinegar to reduce visceral fat.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018