Matching Items (10)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

134351-Thumbnail Image.png

Mathematical Analysis of Photoreceptor Degeneration in Retinal Detachment

Description

The retina is the lining in the back of the eye responsible for vision. When light photons hits the retina, the photoreceptors within the retina respond by sending impulses to the optic nerve, which connects to the brain. If there

The retina is the lining in the back of the eye responsible for vision. When light photons hits the retina, the photoreceptors within the retina respond by sending impulses to the optic nerve, which connects to the brain. If there is injury to the eye or heredity retinal problems, this part can become detached. Detachment leads to loss of nutrients, such as oxygen and glucose, to the cells in the eye and causes cell death. Sometimes the retina is able to be surgically reattached. If the photoreceptor cells have not died and the reattachment is successful, then these cells are able to regenerate their outer segments (OS) which are essential for their functionality and vitality. In this work we will explore how the regrowth of the photoreceptor cells in a healthy eye after retinal detachment can lead to a deeper understanding of how eye cells take up nutrients and regenerate. This work uses a mathematical model for a healthy eye in conjunction with data for photoreceptors' regrowth and decay. The parameters for the healthy eye model are estimated from the data and the ranges of these parameter values are centered +/- 10\% away from these values are used for sensitivity analysis. Using parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis we can better understand how certain processes represented by these parameters change within the model as a result of retinal detachment. Having a deeper understanding for any sort of photoreceptor death and growth can be used by the greater scientific community to help with these currently irreversible conditions that lead to blindness, such as retinal detachment. The analysis in this work shows that maximizing the carrying capacity of the trophic pool and the rate of RDCVF, as well as minimizing nutrient withdrawal of the rods and the cones from the trophic pool results in both the most regrowth and least cell death in retinal detachment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

133983-Thumbnail Image.png

Jump Dynamics

Description

There are multiple mathematical models for alignment of individuals moving within a group. In a first class of models, individuals tend to relax their velocity toward the average velocity of other nearby neighbors. These types of models are motivated by

There are multiple mathematical models for alignment of individuals moving within a group. In a first class of models, individuals tend to relax their velocity toward the average velocity of other nearby neighbors. These types of models are motivated by the flocking behavior exhibited by birds. Another class of models have been introduced to describe rapid changes of individual velocity, referred to as jump, which better describes behavior of smaller agents (e.g. locusts, ants). In the second class of model, individuals will randomly choose to align with another nearby individual, matching velocities. There are several open questions concerning these two type of behavior: which behavior is the most efficient to create a flock (i.e. to converge toward the same velocity)? Will flocking still emerge when the number of individuals approach infinity? Analysis of these models show that, in the homogeneous case where all individuals are capable of interacting with each other, the variance of the velocities in both the jump model and the relaxation model decays to 0 exponentially for any nonzero number of individuals. This implies the individuals in the system converge to an absorbing state where all individuals share the same velocity, therefore individuals converge to a flock even as the number of individuals approach infinity. Further analysis focused on the case where interactions between individuals were determined by an adjacency matrix. The second eigenvalues of the Laplacian of this adjacency matrix (denoted ƛ2) provided a lower bound on the rate of decay of the variance. When ƛ2 is nonzero, the system is said to converge to a flock almost surely. Furthermore, when the adjacency matrix is generated by a random graph, such that connections between individuals are formed with probability p (where 01/N. ƛ2 is a good estimator of the rate of convergence of the system, in comparison to the value of p used to generate the adjacency matrix..

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

154488-Thumbnail Image.png

Evolutionary games as interacting particle systems

Description

This dissertation investigates the dynamics of evolutionary games based on the framework of interacting particle systems in which individuals are discrete, space is explicit, and dynamics are stochastic. Its focus is on 2-strategy games played on a d-dimensional integer

This dissertation investigates the dynamics of evolutionary games based on the framework of interacting particle systems in which individuals are discrete, space is explicit, and dynamics are stochastic. Its focus is on 2-strategy games played on a d-dimensional integer lattice with a range of interaction M. An overview of related past work is given along with a summary of the dynamics in the mean-field model, which is described by the replicator equation. Then the dynamics of the interacting particle system is considered, first when individuals are updated according to the best-response update process and then the death-birth update process. Several interesting results are derived, and the differences between the interacting particle system model and the replicator dynamics are emphasized. The terms selfish and altruistic are defined according to a certain ordering of payoff parameters. In these terms, the replicator dynamics are simple: coexistence occurs if both strategies are altruistic; the selfish strategy wins if one strategy is selfish and the other is altruistic; and there is bistability if both strategies are selfish. Under the best-response update process, it is shown that there is no bistability region. Instead, in the presence of at least one selfish strategy, the most selfish strategy wins, while there is still coexistence if both strategies are altruistic. Under the death-birth update process, it is shown that regardless of the range of interactions and the dimension, regions of coexistence and bistability are both reduced. Additionally, coexistence occurs in some parameter region for large enough interaction ranges. Finally, in contrast with the replicator equation and the best-response update process, cooperators can win in the prisoner's dilemma for the death-birth process in one-dimensional nearest-neighbor interactions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

156315-Thumbnail Image.png

The economics of need-based transfers

Description

Need-based transfers (NBTs) are a form of risk-pooling in which binary welfare exchanges

occur to preserve the viable participation of individuals in an economy, e.g. reciprocal gifting

of cattle among East African herders or food sharing among vampire bats. With the

broad goal

Need-based transfers (NBTs) are a form of risk-pooling in which binary welfare exchanges

occur to preserve the viable participation of individuals in an economy, e.g. reciprocal gifting

of cattle among East African herders or food sharing among vampire bats. With the

broad goal of better understanding the mathematics of such binary welfare and risk pooling,

agent-based simulations are conducted to explore socially optimal transfer policies

and sharing network structures, kinetic exchange models that utilize tools from the kinetic

theory of gas dynamics are utilized to characterize the wealth distribution of an NBT economy,

and a variant of repeated prisoner’s dilemma is analyzed to determine whether and

why individuals would participate in such a system of reciprocal altruism.

From agent-based simulation and kinetic exchange models, it is found that regressive

NBT wealth redistribution acts as a cutting stock optimization heuristic that most efficiently

matches deficits to surpluses to improve short-term survival; however, progressive

redistribution leads to a wealth distribution that is more stable in volatile environments and

therefore is optimal for long-term survival. Homogeneous sharing networks with low variance

in degree are found to be ideal for maintaining community viability as the burden and

benefit of NBTs is equally shared. Also, phrasing NBTs as a survivor’s dilemma reveals

parameter regions where the repeated game becomes equivalent to a stag hunt or harmony

game, and thus where cooperation is evolutionarily stable.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

162238-Thumbnail Image.png

Network Based Models of Opinion Formation: Consensus and Beyond

Description

Understanding the evolution of opinions is a delicate task as the dynamics of how one changes their opinion based on their interactions with others are unclear.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

154089-Thumbnail Image.png

Swarming in bounded domains

Description

Swarms of animals, fish, birds, locusts etc. are a common occurrence but their coherence and method of organization poses a major question for mathematics and biology.The Vicsek and the Attraction-Repulsion are two models that have been proposed to

Swarms of animals, fish, birds, locusts etc. are a common occurrence but their coherence and method of organization poses a major question for mathematics and biology.The Vicsek and the Attraction-Repulsion are two models that have been proposed to explain the emergence of collective motion. A major issue for the Vicsek Model is that its particles are not attracted to each other, leaving the swarm with alignment in velocity but without spatial coherence. Restricting the particles to a bounded domain generates global spatial coherence of swarms while maintaining velocity alignment. While individual particles are specularly reflected at the boundary, the swarm as a whole is not. As a result, new dynamical swarming solutions are found.

The Attraction-Repulsion Model set with a long-range attraction and short-range repulsion interaction potential typically stabilizes to a well-studied flock steady state solution. The particles for a flock remain spatially coherent but have no spatial bound and explore all space. A bounded domain with specularly reflecting walls traps the particles within a specific region. A fundamental refraction law for a swarm impacting on a planar boundary is derived. The swarm reflection varies from specular for a swarm dominated by

kinetic energy to inelastic for a swarm dominated by potential energy. Inelastic collisions lead to alignment with the wall and to damped pulsating oscillations of the swarm. The fundamental refraction law provides a one-dimensional iterative map that allows for a prediction and analysis of the trajectory of the center of mass of a flock in a channel and a square domain.

The extension of the wall collisions to a scattering experiment is conducted by setting two identical flocks to collide. The two particle dynamics is studied analytically and shows a transition from scattering: diverging flocks to bound states in the form of oscillations or parallel motions. Numerical studies of collisions of flocks show the same transition where the bound states become either a single translating flock or a rotating (mill).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

157107-Thumbnail Image.png

Rigorous Proofs of Old Conjectures and New Results for Stochastic Spatial Models in Econophysics

Description

This dissertation examines six different models in the field of econophysics using interacting particle systems as the basis of exploration. In each model examined, the underlying structure is a graph G = (V , E ), where each x ∈

This dissertation examines six different models in the field of econophysics using interacting particle systems as the basis of exploration. In each model examined, the underlying structure is a graph G = (V , E ), where each x ∈ V represents an individual who is characterized by the number of coins in her possession at time t. At each time step t, an edge (x, y) ∈ E is chosen at random, resulting in an exchange of coins between individuals x and y according to the rules of the model. Random variables ξt, and ξt(x) keep track of the current configuration and number of coins individual x has at time t respectively. Of particular interest is the distribution of coins in the long run. Considered first are the uniform reshuffling model, immediate exchange model and model with saving propensity. For each of these models, the number of coins an individual can have is nonnegative and the total number of coins in the system is conserved for all time. It is shown here that the distribution of coins converges to the exponential distribution, gamma distribution and a pseudo gamma distribution respectively. The next two models introduce debt, however, the total number of coins again remains fixed. It is shown here that when there is an individual debt limit, the number of coins per individual converges to a shifted exponential distribution. Alternatively, when a collective debt limit is imposed on the whole population, a heuristic argument is given supporting the conjecture that the distribution of coins converges to an asymmetric Laplace distribution. The final model considered focuses on the effect of cooperation on a population. Unlike the previous models discussed here, the total number of coins in the system at any given time is not bounded and the process evolves in continuous time rather than in discrete time. For this model, death of an individual will occur if they run out of coins. It is shown here that the survival probability for the population is impacted by the level of cooperation along with how productive the population is as whole.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

157010-Thumbnail Image.png

Convergence results for two models of interaction

Description

I investigate two models interacting agent systems: the first is motivated by the flocking and swarming behaviors in biological systems, while the second models opinion formation in social networks. In each setting, I define natural notions of convergence (to a

I investigate two models interacting agent systems: the first is motivated by the flocking and swarming behaviors in biological systems, while the second models opinion formation in social networks. In each setting, I define natural notions of convergence (to a ``flock" and to a ``consensus'', respectively), and study the convergence properties of each in the limit as $t \rightarrow \infty$. Specifically, I provide sufficient conditions for the convergence of both of the models, and conduct numerical experiments to study the resulting solutions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

157649-Thumbnail Image.png

Optimal sampling for linear function approximation and high-order finite difference methods over complex regions

Description

I focus on algorithms that generate good sampling points for function approximation. In 1D, it is well known that polynomial interpolation using equispaced points is unstable. On the other hand, using Chebyshev nodes provides both stable and highly accurate points

I focus on algorithms that generate good sampling points for function approximation. In 1D, it is well known that polynomial interpolation using equispaced points is unstable. On the other hand, using Chebyshev nodes provides both stable and highly accurate points for polynomial interpolation. In higher dimensional complex regions, optimal sampling points are not known explicitly. This work presents robust algorithms that find good sampling points in complex regions for polynomial interpolation, least-squares, and radial basis function (RBF) methods. The quality of these nodes is measured using the Lebesgue constant. I will also consider optimal sampling for constrained optimization, used to solve PDEs, where boundary conditions must be imposed. Furthermore, I extend the scope of the problem to include finding near-optimal sampling points for high-order finite difference methods. These high-order finite difference methods can be implemented using either piecewise polynomials or RBFs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

157690-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling collective motion of complex systems using agent-based models & macroscopic models

Description

The main objective of mathematical modeling is to connect mathematics with other scientific fields. Developing predictable models help to understand the behavior of biological systems. By testing models, one can relate mathematics and real-world experiments. To validate predictions numerically, one

The main objective of mathematical modeling is to connect mathematics with other scientific fields. Developing predictable models help to understand the behavior of biological systems. By testing models, one can relate mathematics and real-world experiments. To validate predictions numerically, one has to compare them with experimental data sets. Mathematical modeling can be split into two groups: microscopic and macroscopic models. Microscopic models described the motion of so-called agents (e.g. cells, ants) that interact with their surrounding neighbors. The interactions among these agents form at a large scale some special structures such as flocking and swarming. One of the key questions is to relate the particular interactions among agents with the overall emerging structures. Macroscopic models are precisely designed to describe the evolution of such large structures. They are usually given as partial differential equations describing the time evolution of a density distribution (instead of tracking each individual agent). For instance, reaction-diffusion equations are used to model glioma cells and are being used to predict tumor growth. This dissertation aims at developing such a framework to better understand the complex behavior of foraging ants and glioma cells.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019