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Some topics concerning the singular value decomposition and generalized singular value decomposition

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This dissertation involves three problems that are all related by the use of the singular value decomposition (SVD) or generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD). The specific problems are (i) derivation of a generalized singular value expansion (GSVE), (ii) analysis of

This dissertation involves three problems that are all related by the use of the singular value decomposition (SVD) or generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD). The specific problems are (i) derivation of a generalized singular value expansion (GSVE), (ii) analysis of the properties of the chi-squared method for regularization parameter selection in the case of nonnormal data and (iii) formulation of a partial canonical correlation concept for continuous time stochastic processes. The finite dimensional SVD has an infinite dimensional generalization to compact operators. However, the form of the finite dimensional GSVD developed in, e.g., Van Loan does not extend directly to infinite dimensions as a result of a key step in the proof that is specific to the matrix case. Thus, the first problem of interest is to find an infinite dimensional version of the GSVD. One such GSVE for compact operators on separable Hilbert spaces is developed. The second problem concerns regularization parameter estimation. The chi-squared method for nonnormal data is considered. A form of the optimized regularization criterion that pertains to measured data or signals with nonnormal noise is derived. Large sample theory for phi-mixing processes is used to derive a central limit theorem for the chi-squared criterion that holds under certain conditions. Departures from normality are seen to manifest in the need for a possibly different scale factor in normalization rather than what would be used under the assumption of normality. The consequences of our large sample work are illustrated by empirical experiments. For the third problem, a new approach is examined for studying the relationships between a collection of functional random variables. The idea is based on the work of Sunder that provides mappings to connect the elements of algebraic and orthogonal direct sums of subspaces in a Hilbert space. When combined with a key isometry associated with a particular Hilbert space indexed stochastic process, this leads to a useful formulation for situations that involve the study of several second order processes. In particular, using our approach with two processes provides an independent derivation of the functional canonical correlation analysis (CCA) results of Eubank and Hsing. For more than two processes, a rigorous derivation of the functional partial canonical correlation analysis (PCCA) concept that applies to both finite and infinite dimensional settings is obtained.

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2012

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The detection of reliability prediction cues in manufacturing data from statistically controlled processes

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Many products undergo several stages of testing ranging from tests on individual components to end-item tests. Additionally, these products may be further "tested" via customer or field use. The later failure of a delivered product may in some cases be

Many products undergo several stages of testing ranging from tests on individual components to end-item tests. Additionally, these products may be further "tested" via customer or field use. The later failure of a delivered product may in some cases be due to circumstances that have no correlation with the product's inherent quality. However, at times, there may be cues in the upstream test data that, if detected, could serve to predict the likelihood of downstream failure or performance degradation induced by product use or environmental stresses. This study explores the use of downstream factory test data or product field reliability data to infer data mining or pattern recognition criteria onto manufacturing process or upstream test data by means of support vector machines (SVM) in order to provide reliability prediction models. In concert with a risk/benefit analysis, these models can be utilized to drive improvement of the product or, at least, via screening to improve the reliability of the product delivered to the customer. Such models can be used to aid in reliability risk assessment based on detectable correlations between the product test performance and the sources of supply, test stands, or other factors related to product manufacture. As an enhancement to the usefulness of the SVM or hyperplane classifier within this context, L-moments and the Western Electric Company (WECO) Rules are used to augment or replace the native process or test data used as inputs to the classifier. As part of this research, a generalizable binary classification methodology was developed that can be used to design and implement predictors of end-item field failure or downstream product performance based on upstream test data that may be composed of single-parameter, time-series, or multivariate real-valued data. Additionally, the methodology provides input parameter weighting factors that have proved useful in failure analysis and root cause investigations as indicators of which of several upstream product parameters have the greater influence on the downstream failure outcomes.

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2011

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System identification via basis pursuit

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This thesis considers the application of basis pursuit to several problems in system identification. After reviewing some key results in the theory of basis pursuit and compressed sensing, numerical experiments are presented that explore the application of basis pursuit to

This thesis considers the application of basis pursuit to several problems in system identification. After reviewing some key results in the theory of basis pursuit and compressed sensing, numerical experiments are presented that explore the application of basis pursuit to the black-box identification of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems with both finite (FIR) and infinite (IIR) impulse responses, temporal systems modeled by ordinary differential equations (ODE), and spatio-temporal systems modeled by partial differential equations (PDE). For LTI systems, the experimental results illustrate existing theory for identification of LTI FIR systems. It is seen that basis pursuit does not identify sparse LTI IIR systems, but it does identify alternate systems with nearly identical magnitude response characteristics when there are small numbers of non-zero coefficients. For ODE systems, the experimental results are consistent with earlier research for differential equations that are polynomials in the system variables, illustrating feasibility of the approach for small numbers of non-zero terms. For PDE systems, it is demonstrated that basis pursuit can be applied to system identification, along with a comparison in performance with another existing method. In all cases the impact of measurement noise on identification performance is considered, and it is empirically observed that high signal-to-noise ratio is required for successful application of basis pursuit to system identification problems.

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2012

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Observability methods in sensor scheduling

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Modern measurement schemes for linear dynamical systems are typically designed so that different sensors can be scheduled to be used at each time step. To determine which sensors to use, various metrics have been suggested. One possible such metric is

Modern measurement schemes for linear dynamical systems are typically designed so that different sensors can be scheduled to be used at each time step. To determine which sensors to use, various metrics have been suggested. One possible such metric is the observability of the system. Observability is a binary condition determining whether a finite number of measurements suffice to recover the initial state. However to employ observability for sensor scheduling, the binary definition needs to be expanded so that one can measure how observable a system is with a particular measurement scheme, i.e. one needs a metric of observability. Most methods utilizing an observability metric are about sensor selection and not for sensor scheduling. In this dissertation we present a new approach to utilize the observability for sensor scheduling by employing the condition number of the observability matrix as the metric and using column subset selection to create an algorithm to choose which sensors to use at each time step. To this end we use a rank revealing QR factorization algorithm to select sensors. Several numerical experiments are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

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2015

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Recent techniques for regularization in partial differential equations and imaging

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Inverse problems model real world phenomena from data, where the data are often noisy and models contain errors. This leads to instabilities, multiple solution vectors and thus ill-posedness. To solve ill-posed inverse problems, regularization is typically used as a penalty

Inverse problems model real world phenomena from data, where the data are often noisy and models contain errors. This leads to instabilities, multiple solution vectors and thus ill-posedness. To solve ill-posed inverse problems, regularization is typically used as a penalty function to induce stability and allow for the incorporation of a priori information about the desired solution. In this thesis, high order regularization techniques are developed for image and function reconstruction from noisy or misleading data. Specifically the incorporation of the Polynomial Annihilation operator allows for the accurate exploitation of the sparse representation of each function in the edge domain.

This dissertation tackles three main problems through the development of novel reconstruction techniques: (i) reconstructing one and two dimensional functions from multiple measurement vectors using variance based joint sparsity when a subset of the measurements contain false and/or misleading information, (ii) approximating discontinuous solutions to hyperbolic partial differential equations by enhancing typical solvers with l1 regularization, and (iii) reducing model assumptions in synthetic aperture radar image formation, specifically for the purpose of speckle reduction and phase error correction. While the common thread tying these problems together is the use of high order regularization, the defining characteristics of each of these problems create unique challenges.

Fast and robust numerical algorithms are also developed so that these problems can be solved efficiently without requiring fine tuning of parameters. Indeed, the numerical experiments presented in this dissertation strongly suggest that the new methodology provides more accurate and robust solutions to a variety of ill-posed inverse problems.

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2018

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Numerical computation of Wishart eigenvalue distributions for multistatic radar detection

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Eigenvalues of the Gram matrix formed from received data frequently appear in sufficient detection statistics for multi-channel detection with Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLRT) and Bayesian tests. In a frequently presented model for passive radar, in which the null hypothesis is

Eigenvalues of the Gram matrix formed from received data frequently appear in sufficient detection statistics for multi-channel detection with Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLRT) and Bayesian tests. In a frequently presented model for passive radar, in which the null hypothesis is that the channels are independent and contain only complex white Gaussian noise and the alternative hypothesis is that the channels contain a common rank-one signal in the mean, the GLRT statistic is the largest eigenvalue $\lambda_1$ of the Gram matrix formed from data. This Gram matrix has a Wishart distribution. Although exact expressions for the distribution of $\lambda_1$ are known under both hypotheses, numerically calculating values of these distribution functions presents difficulties in cases where the dimension of the data vectors is large. This dissertation presents tractable methods for computing the distribution of $\lambda_1$ under both the null and alternative hypotheses through a technique of expanding known expressions for the distribution of $\lambda_1$ as inner products of orthogonal polynomials. These newly presented expressions for the distribution allow for computation of detection thresholds and receiver operating characteristic curves to arbitrary precision in floating point arithmetic. This represents a significant advancement over the state of the art in a problem that could previously only be addressed by Monte Carlo methods.

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2019

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Partition of Unity Methods for Solving Partial Differential Equations on Surfaces

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Solving partial differential equations on surfaces has many applications including modeling chemical diffusion, pattern formation, geophysics and texture mapping. This dissertation presents two techniques for solving time dependent partial differential equations on various surfaces using the partition of unity method.

Solving partial differential equations on surfaces has many applications including modeling chemical diffusion, pattern formation, geophysics and texture mapping. This dissertation presents two techniques for solving time dependent partial differential equations on various surfaces using the partition of unity method. A novel spectral cubed sphere method that utilizes the windowed Fourier technique is presented and used for both approximating functions on spherical domains and solving partial differential equations. The spectral cubed sphere method is applied to solve the transport equation as well as the diffusion equation on the unit sphere. The second approach is a partition of unity method with local radial basis function approximations. This technique is also used to explore the effect of the node distribution as it is well known that node choice plays an important role in the accuracy and stability of an approximation. A greedy algorithm is implemented to generate good interpolation nodes using the column pivoting QR factorization. The partition of unity radial basis function method is applied to solve the diffusion equation on the sphere as well as a system of reaction-diffusion equations on multiple surfaces including the surface of a red blood cell, a torus, and the Stanford bunny. Accuracy and stability of both methods are investigated.

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2021