Matching Items (8)

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Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction

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This thesis was prepared by Tyler Maynard and Hayley Monroe, who are students at Arizona State University studying to complete their B.S.E.s in Civil Engineering and Construction Engineering, respectively. Both

This thesis was prepared by Tyler Maynard and Hayley Monroe, who are students at Arizona State University studying to complete their B.S.E.s in Civil Engineering and Construction Engineering, respectively. Both students are members of Barrett, the Honors College, at Arizona State University, and have prepared the following document for the purpose of completing their undergraduate honors thesis. The early sections of this document comprise a general, introductory overview of earthquakes and liquefaction as a phenomenon resulting from earthquakes. In the latter sections, this document analyzes the relationship between the furthest hypocentral distance to observed liquefaction and the earthquake magnitude published in 2006 by Wang, Wong, Dreger, and Manga. This research was conducted to gain a greater understanding of the factors influencing liquefaction and to compare the existing relationship between the maximum distance for liquefaction and earthquake magnitude to updated earthquake data compiled for the purpose of this report. As part of this research, 38 different earthquake events from the Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association with liquefaction data were examined. Information regarding earthquake depth, distance to the furthest liquefaction event (epicentral and hypocentral), and earthquake magnitude (Mw) from recent earthquake events (1989 to 2016) was compared to the previously established relationship of liquefaction occurrence distance to moment magnitude. The purpose of this comparison was to determine if recent events still comply with the established relationship. From this comparison, it was determined that the established relationship still generally holds true for the large magnitude earthquakes (magnitude 7.5 or above) that were considered herein (with only 2.6% falling above the furthest expected liquefaction distance). However, this relationship may be too conservative for recent, low magnitude earthquake events; those events examined below magnitude 6.3 did not approach established range of furthest expected liquefaction distance. The overestimation of furthest hypocentral distance to liquefaction at low magnitudes suggest the empirical relationship may need to be adjusted to more accurately capture recent events, as reported by GEER.

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  • 2017-12

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Mexico City: Earthquake Dynamics of Structures

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The 8.1 magnitude earthquake that struck Mexico City in 1985 left 10,000 people dead, and over 400 buildings collapsed. The extent of the damage left behind by this powerful quake

The 8.1 magnitude earthquake that struck Mexico City in 1985 left 10,000 people dead, and over 400 buildings collapsed. The extent of the damage left behind by this powerful quake has been extensively studied to make improvements to engineering and architectural practices in earthquake-prone areas of the world. Thirty-two years later, on the exact anniversary of the devastating earthquake, Mexico City was once again jolted by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake. Although still significant, the 2017 earthquake collapsed only about a tenth of the buildings collapsed by the 1985 Earthquake, and in turn resulted in a lower death toll. Even though these earthquakes struck in the same seismic region, their effects were vastly different. This thesis completes a comparison between the two earthquakes focusing on the structural impacts including background on Mexico City's unique geology, basic concepts necessary to understand the response of structures to earthquake excitation, and structural failure modes observed in both earthquakes. The thesis will also discuss the earthquake's fundamental differences that led to the discrepancy in structural damage and ultimately in lower death tolls. Of those discussed, is the types of buildings that were targeted and collapsed. In 1985, buildings with 6 or more floors had the highest damage category. Resonance frequencies of these buildings were similar to the resonance frequencies of the subsoil, leading to amplified oscillations, and ultimately in failure. The 2017 earthquake did not have as much distance from the epicenter for the high frequency seismic waves to be absorbed. In contrast, the shorter, faster waves that reached the capital affected smaller buildings, and spared most tall buildings.

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  • 2018-05

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A Comparative Case Study on the Economic Disruption of Earthquakes: A Look into New Zealand, Haiti, and Guatemala

Description

The January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake, which hit Port-au-Prince in the late afternoon, was the cause of over 220,000 deaths and $8 billion in damages \u2014 roughly 120% of national

The January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake, which hit Port-au-Prince in the late afternoon, was the cause of over 220,000 deaths and $8 billion in damages \u2014 roughly 120% of national GDP at the time. A Mw 7.5 earthquake struck rural Guatemala in the early morning in 1976 and caused 23,000-25,000 deaths, three times as many injuries, and roughly $1.1 billion in damages, which accounted for approximately 30% of Guatemala's GDP. The earthquake which hit just outside of Christchurch, New Zealand early in the morning on September 4, 2010 had a magnitude of 7.1 and caused just two injuries, no deaths, and roughly 7.2 billion USD in damages (5% of GDP). These three earthquakes, all with magnitudes over 7 on the Richter scale, caused extremely varied amounts of economic damage for these three countries. This thesis aims to identify a possible explanation as to why this was the case and suggest ways in which to improve disaster risk management going forward.

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  • 2016-05

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Integrating LiDAR topography into the study of earthquakes and faulting

Description

Meter-resolution topography gathered by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has become an indispensable tool for better understanding of many surface processes including those sculpting landscapes that record information about earthquake

Meter-resolution topography gathered by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has become an indispensable tool for better understanding of many surface processes including those sculpting landscapes that record information about earthquake hazards for example. For this reason, and because of the spectacular representation of the phenomena that these data provide, it is appropriate to integrate these data into Earth science educational materials. I seek to answer the following research question: "will using the LiDAR topography data instead of, or alongside, traditional visualizations and teaching methods enhance a student's ability to understand geologic concepts such as plate tectonics, the earthquake cycle, strike-slip faults, and geomorphology?" In order to answer this question, a ten-minute introductory video on LiDAR and its uses for the study of earthquakes entitled "LiDAR: Illuminating Earthquake Hazards" was produced. Additionally, LiDAR topography was integrated into the development of an undergraduate-level educational activity, the San Andreas fault (SAF) earthquake cycle activity, designed to teach introductory Earth science students about the earthquake cycle. Both the LiDAR video and the SAF activity were tested in undergraduate classrooms in order to determine their effectiveness. A pretest and posttest were administered to introductory geology lab students. The results of these tests show a notable increase in understanding LiDAR topography and its uses for studying earthquakes from pretest to posttest after watching the video on LiDAR, and a notable increase in understanding the earthquake cycle from pretest to posttest using the San Andreas Fault earthquake cycle exercise. These results suggest that the use of LiDAR topography within these educational tools is beneficial for students when learning about the earthquake cycle and earthquake hazards.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Effects of fault segmentation, mechanical interaction, and structural complexity on earthquake-generated deformation

Description

Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and

Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and sculpted by geomorphic processes. Crustal deformation manifests as earthquakes at centennial to millennial timescales. Given that nearly half of Earth's human population lives along active fault zones, a quantitative understanding of the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting is necessary to build accurate earthquake forecasts. My research relies on the quantitative documentation of the geomorphic expression of large earthquakes and the physical processes that control their spatiotemporal distributions. The first part of my research uses high-resolution topographic lidar data to quantitatively document the geomorphic expression of historic and prehistoric large earthquakes. Lidar data allow for enhanced visualization and reconstruction of structures and stratigraphy exposed by paleoseismic trenches. Lidar surveys of fault scarps formed by the 1992 Landers earthquake document the centimeter-scale erosional landforms developed by repeated winter storm-driven erosion. The second part of my research employs a quasi-static numerical earthquake simulator to explore the effects of fault roughness, friction, and structural complexities on earthquake-generated deformation. My experiments show that fault roughness plays a critical role in determining fault-to-fault rupture jumping probabilities. These results corroborate the accepted 3-5 km rupture jumping distance for smooth faults. However, my simulations show that the rupture jumping threshold distance is highly variable for rough faults due to heterogeneous elastic strain energies. Furthermore, fault roughness controls spatiotemporal variations in slip rates such that rough faults exhibit lower slip rates relative to their smooth counterparts. The central implication of these results lies in guiding the interpretation of paleoseismically derived slip rates that are used to form earthquake forecasts. The final part of my research evaluates a set of Earth science-themed lesson plans that I designed for elementary-level learning-disabled students. My findings show that a combination of concept delivery techniques is most effective for learning-disabled students and should incorporate interactive slide presentations, tactile manipulatives, teacher-assisted concept sketches, and student-led teaching to help learning-disabled students grasp Earth science concepts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

Seismicity within Arizona during the deployment of the EarthScope USArray transportable array

Description

The goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of earthquake distribution and regional tectonic structure across Arizona. To achieve this objective, I utilized seismic data from EarthScope's

The goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of earthquake distribution and regional tectonic structure across Arizona. To achieve this objective, I utilized seismic data from EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array (TA), which was deployed in Arizona from April 2006 to March 2009. With station spacing of approximately 70 km and ~3 years of continuous three-component broadband seismic data, the TA provided an unprecedented opportunity to develop the first seismicity catalog for Arizona without spatial sampling bias. In this study I developed a new data analysis workflow to detect smaller scale seismicity across a regional study area, which serves as a template for future regional analyses of TA data and similar datasets. The final event catalog produced for this study increased the total number of earthquakes documented in Arizona by more than 50% compared to the historical catalog, despite being generated from less than three years of continuous waveform data. I combined this new TA catalog with existing earthquake catalogs to construct a comprehensive historical earthquake catalog for Arizona. These results enabled the identification of several previously unidentified areas of seismic activity within the state, as well as two regions characterized by seismicity in the deeper (>20 km) crust. The catalog also includes 16 event clusters, 10 of which exhibited clear temporal clustering and swarm-like behavior. These swarms were distributed throughout all three physiographic provinces, suggesting that earthquake swarms occur regardless of tectonic or physiographic setting. I also conducted a case study for an earthquake swarm in June of 2007 near Theodore Roosevelt Lake, approximately 80 miles northeast of Phoenix. Families of events showed very similar character, suggesting a nearly identical source location and focal mechanism. We obtained focal mechanisms for the largest of these events, and found that they are consistent with normal faulting, expected in this area of the Arizona Transition Zone. Further, I observed no notable correlation between reservoir water level and seismicity. The occurrence of multiple historical earthquakes in the areas surrounding the reservoir indicates that this swarm was likely the result of tectonic strain release, and not reservoir induced seismicity.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Earthquake geology, hazard, urban form and social vulnerability along the San Andreas Fault

Description

The San Andreas Fault (SAF) is the primary structure within a system of faults accommodating motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Physical models of faulting and characterizations of

The San Andreas Fault (SAF) is the primary structure within a system of faults accommodating motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Physical models of faulting and characterizations of seismic hazard are informed by investigations of paleoseismology, slip distribution, and slip rate. The impact of earthquakes on people is due in large part to social vulnerability. This dissertation contributes an analysis about the relationships between earthquake hazard and social vulnerability in Los Angeles, CA and investigations of paleoseismology and fault scarp array complexity on the central SAF. Analysis of fault scarp array geometry and morphology using 0.5 m digital elevation models along 122 km of the central SAF reveals significant variation in the complexity of SAF structure. Scarp trace complexity is measured by scarp separation, changes in strike, fault trace gaps, and scarp length per SAF kilometer. Geometrical complexity in fault scarp arrays indicates that the central SAF can be grouped into seven segments. Segment boundaries are controlled by interactions with subsidiary faults. Investigation of an offset channel at Parkfield, CA yields a late Holocene slip rate of 26.2 +6.4/- 4.3 mm/yr. This rate is lower than geologic measurements on the Carrizo section of the SAF and rates implied by far-field geodesy. However, it is consistent with historical observations of slip at Parkfield. Paleoseismology at Parkfield indicates that large earthquakes are absent from the stratigraphic record for at least a millennia. Together these observations imply that the amount of plate boundary slip accommodated by the main SAF varies along strike. Contrary to most environmental justice analyses showing that vulnerable populations are spatially-tied to environmental hazards, geospatial analyses relating social vulnerability and earthquake hazard in southern California show that these groups are not disproportionately exposed to the areas of greatest hazard. Instead, park and green space is linked to earthquake hazard through fault zone regulation. In Los Angeles, a parks poor city, the distribution of social vulnerability is strongly tied to a lack of park space. Thus, people with access to financial and political resources strive to live in neighborhoods with parks, even in the face of forewarned risk.

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Date Created
  • 2011