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Classifying everyday activity through label propagation with sparse training data

Description

We solve the problem of activity verification in the context of sustainability. Activity verification is the process of proving the user assertions pertaining to a certain activity performed by the user. Our motivation lies in incentivizing the user for engaging

We solve the problem of activity verification in the context of sustainability. Activity verification is the process of proving the user assertions pertaining to a certain activity performed by the user. Our motivation lies in incentivizing the user for engaging in sustainable activities like taking public transport or recycling. Such incentivization schemes require the system to verify the claim made by the user. The system verifies these claims by analyzing the supporting evidence captured by the user while performing the activity. The proliferation of portable smart-phones in the past few years has provided us with a ubiquitous and relatively cheap platform, having multiple sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, microphone etc. to capture this evidence data in-situ. In this research, we investigate the supervised and semi-supervised learning techniques for activity verification. Both these techniques make use the data set constructed using the evidence submitted by the user. Supervised learning makes use of annotated evidence data to build a function to predict the class labels of the unlabeled data points. The evidence data captured can be either unimodal or multimodal in nature. We use the accelerometer data as evidence for transportation mode verification and image data as evidence for recycling verification. After training the system, we achieve maximum accuracy of 94% when classifying the transport mode and 81% when detecting recycle activity. In the case of recycle verification, we could improve the classification accuracy by asking the user for more evidence. We present some techniques to ask the user for the next best piece of evidence that maximizes the probability of classification. Using these techniques for detecting recycle activity, the accuracy increases to 93%. The major disadvantage of using supervised models is that it requires extensive annotated training data, which expensive to collect. Due to the limited training data, we look at the graph based inductive semi-supervised learning methods to propagate the labels among the unlabeled samples. In the semi-supervised approach, we represent each instance in the data set as a node in the graph. Since it is a complete graph, edges interconnect these nodes, with each edge having some weight representing the similarity between the points. We propagate the labels in this graph, based on the proximity of the data points to the labeled nodes. We estimate the performance of these algorithms by measuring how close the probability distribution of the data after label propagation is to the probability distribution of the ground truth data. Since labeling has a cost associated with it, in this thesis we propose two algorithms that help us in selecting minimum number of labeled points to propagate the labels accurately. Our proposed algorithm achieves a maximum of 73% increase in performance when compared to the baseline algorithm.

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Date Created
2013

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Finding provenance data in social media

Description

A statement appearing in social media provides a very significant challenge for determining the provenance of the statement. Provenance describes the origin, custody, and ownership of something. Most statements appearing in social media are not published with corresponding provenance data.

A statement appearing in social media provides a very significant challenge for determining the provenance of the statement. Provenance describes the origin, custody, and ownership of something. Most statements appearing in social media are not published with corresponding provenance data. However, the same characteristics that make the social media environment challenging, including the massive amounts of data available, large numbers of users, and a highly dynamic environment, provide unique and untapped opportunities for solving the provenance problem for social media. Current approaches for tracking provenance data do not scale for online social media and consequently there is a gap in provenance methodologies and technologies providing exciting research opportunities. The guiding vision is the use of social media information itself to realize a useful amount of provenance data for information in social media. This departs from traditional approaches for data provenance which rely on a central store of provenance information. The contemporary online social media environment is an enormous and constantly updated "central store" that can be mined for provenance information that is not readily made available to the average social media user. This research introduces an approach and builds a foundation aimed at realizing a provenance data capability for social media users that is not accessible today.

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Date Created
2011

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Multi-label dimensionality reduction

Description

Multi-label learning, which deals with data associated with multiple labels simultaneously, is ubiquitous in real-world applications. To overcome the curse of dimensionality in multi-label learning, in this thesis I study multi-label dimensionality reduction, which extracts a small number of features

Multi-label learning, which deals with data associated with multiple labels simultaneously, is ubiquitous in real-world applications. To overcome the curse of dimensionality in multi-label learning, in this thesis I study multi-label dimensionality reduction, which extracts a small number of features by removing the irrelevant, redundant, and noisy information while considering the correlation among different labels in multi-label learning. Specifically, I propose Hypergraph Spectral Learning (HSL) to perform dimensionality reduction for multi-label data by exploiting correlations among different labels using a hypergraph. The regularization effect on the classical dimensionality reduction algorithm known as Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is elucidated in this thesis. The relationship between CCA and Orthonormalized Partial Least Squares (OPLS) is also investigated. To perform dimensionality reduction efficiently for large-scale problems, two efficient implementations are proposed for a class of dimensionality reduction algorithms, including canonical correlation analysis, orthonormalized partial least squares, linear discriminant analysis, and hypergraph spectral learning. The first approach is a direct least squares approach which allows the use of different regularization penalties, but is applicable under a certain assumption; the second one is a two-stage approach which can be applied in the regularization setting without any assumption. Furthermore, an online implementation for the same class of dimensionality reduction algorithms is proposed when the data comes sequentially. A Matlab toolbox for multi-label dimensionality reduction has been developed and released. The proposed algorithms have been applied successfully in the Drosophila gene expression pattern image annotation. The experimental results on some benchmark data sets in multi-label learning also demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

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Date Created
2011

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Surgical instrument reprocessing in a hospital setting analyzed with statistical process control and data mining techniques

Description

In a healthcare setting, the Sterile Processing Department (SPD) provides ancillary services to the Operating Room (OR), Emergency Room, Labor & Delivery, and off-site clinics. SPD's function is to reprocess reusable surgical instruments and return them to their home departments.

In a healthcare setting, the Sterile Processing Department (SPD) provides ancillary services to the Operating Room (OR), Emergency Room, Labor & Delivery, and off-site clinics. SPD's function is to reprocess reusable surgical instruments and return them to their home departments. The management of surgical instruments and medical devices can impact patient safety and hospital revenue. Any time instrumentation or devices are not available or are not fit for use, patient safety and revenue can be negatively impacted. One step of the instrument reprocessing cycle is sterilization. Steam sterilization is the sterilization method used for the majority of surgical instruments and is preferred to immediate use steam sterilization (IUSS) because terminally sterilized items can be stored until needed. IUSS Items must be used promptly and cannot be stored for later use. IUSS is intended for emergency situations and not as regular course of action. Unfortunately, IUSS is used to compensate for inadequate inventory levels, scheduling conflicts, and miscommunications. If IUSS is viewed as an adverse event, then monitoring IUSS incidences can help healthcare organizations meet patient safety goals and financial goals along with aiding in process improvement efforts. This work recommends statistical process control methods to IUSS incidents and illustrates the use of control charts for IUSS occurrences through a case study and analysis of the control charts for data from a health care provider. Furthermore, this work considers the application of data mining methods to IUSS occurrences and presents a representative example of data mining to the IUSS occurrences. This extends the application of statistical process control and data mining in healthcare applications.

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Date Created
2014

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Effective gene expression annotation approaches for mouse brain images

Description

Understanding the complexity of temporal and spatial characteristics of gene expression over brain development is one of the crucial research topics in neuroscience. An accurate description of the locations and expression status of relative genes requires extensive experiment resources. The

Understanding the complexity of temporal and spatial characteristics of gene expression over brain development is one of the crucial research topics in neuroscience. An accurate description of the locations and expression status of relative genes requires extensive experiment resources. The Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas provides a large number of in situ hybridization (ISH) images of gene expression over seven different mouse brain developmental stages. Studying mouse brain models helps us understand the gene expressions in human brains. This atlas collects about thousands of genes and now they are manually annotated by biologists. Due to the high labor cost of manual annotation, investigating an efficient approach to perform automated gene expression annotation on mouse brain images becomes necessary. In this thesis, a novel efficient approach based on machine learning framework is proposed. Features are extracted from raw brain images, and both binary classification and multi-class classification models are built with some supervised learning methods. To generate features, one of the most adopted methods in current research effort is to apply the bag-of-words (BoW) algorithm. However, both the efficiency and the accuracy of BoW are not outstanding when dealing with large-scale data. Thus, an augmented sparse coding method, which is called Stochastic Coordinate Coding, is adopted to generate high-level features in this thesis. In addition, a new multi-label classification model is proposed in this thesis. Label hierarchy is built based on the given brain ontology structure. Experiments have been conducted on the atlas and the results show that this approach is efficient and classifies the images with a relatively higher accuracy.

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Date Created
2016

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Learning from the Data Heterogeneity for Data Imputation

Description

Data mining, also known as big data analysis, has been identified as a critical and challenging process for a variety of applications in real-world problems. Numerous datasets are collected and generated every day to store the information. The rise in

Data mining, also known as big data analysis, has been identified as a critical and challenging process for a variety of applications in real-world problems. Numerous datasets are collected and generated every day to store the information. The rise in the number of data volumes and data modality has resulted in the increased demand for data mining methods and strategies of finding anomalies, patterns, and correlations within large data sets to predict outcomes. Effective machine learning methods are widely adapted to build the data mining pipeline for various purposes like business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modeling, evaluation, and deployment. The major challenges for effectively and efficiently mining big data include (1) data heterogeneity and (2) missing data. Heterogeneity is the natural characteristic of big data, as the data is typically collected from different sources with diverse formats. The missing value is the most common issue faced by the heterogeneous data analysis, which resulted from variety of factors including the data collecting processing, user initiatives, erroneous data entries, and so on. In response to these challenges, in this thesis, three main research directions with application scenarios have been investigated: (1) Mining and Formulating Heterogeneous Data, (2) missing value imputation strategy in various application scenarios in both offline and online manner, and (3) missing value imputation for multi-modality data. Multiple strategies with theoretical analysis are presented, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms compared with state-of-the-art methods is discussed.

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Date Created
2021

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Patient-centered and experience-aware mining for effective information discovery in health forums

Description

Online health forums provide a convenient channel for patients, caregivers, and medical professionals to share their experience, support and encourage each other, and form health communities. The fast growing content in health forums provides a large repository for people to

Online health forums provide a convenient channel for patients, caregivers, and medical professionals to share their experience, support and encourage each other, and form health communities. The fast growing content in health forums provides a large repository for people to seek valuable information. A forum user can issue a keyword query to search health forums regarding to some specific questions, e.g., what treatments are effective for a disease symptom? A medical researcher can discover medical knowledge in a timely and large-scale fashion by automatically aggregating the latest evidences emerging in health forums.

This dissertation studies how to effectively discover information in health forums. Several challenges have been identified. First, the existing work relies on the syntactic information unit, such as a sentence, a post, or a thread, to bind different pieces of information in a forum. However, most of information discovery tasks should be based on the semantic information unit, a patient. For instance, given a keyword query that involves the relationship between a treatment and side effects, it is expected that the matched keywords refer to the same patient. In this work, patient-centered mining is proposed to mine patient semantic information units. In a patient information unit, the health information, such as diseases, symptoms, treatments, effects, and etc., is connected by the corresponding patient.

Second, the information published in health forums has varying degree of quality. Some information includes patient-reported personal health experience, while others can be hearsay. In this work, a context-aware experience extraction framework is proposed to mine patient-reported personal health experience, which can be used for evidence-based knowledge discovery or finding patients with similar experience.

At last, the proposed patient-centered and experience-aware mining framework is used to build a patient health information database for effectively discovering adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from health forums. ADRs have become a serious health problem and even a leading cause of death in the United States. Health forums provide valuable evidences in a large scale and in a timely fashion through the active participation of patients, caregivers, and doctors. Empirical evaluation shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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Date Created
2016

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Automatic text summarization using importance of sentences for email corpus

Description

With the advent of Internet, the data being added online is increasing at enormous rate. Though search engines are using IR techniques to facilitate the search requests from users, the results are not effective towards the search query of the

With the advent of Internet, the data being added online is increasing at enormous rate. Though search engines are using IR techniques to facilitate the search requests from users, the results are not effective towards the search query of the user. The search engine user has to go through certain webpages before getting at the webpage he/she wanted. This problem of Information Overload can be solved using Automatic Text Summarization. Summarization is a process of obtaining at abridged version of documents so that user can have a quick view to understand what exactly the document is about. Email threads from W3C are used in this system. Apart from common IR features like Term Frequency, Inverse Document Frequency, Term Rank, a variation of page rank based on graph model, which can cluster the words with respective to word ambiguity, is implemented. Term Rank also considers the possibility of co-occurrence of words with the corpus and evaluates the rank of the word accordingly. Sentences of email threads are ranked as per features and summaries are generated. System implemented the concept of pyramid evaluation in content selection. The system can be considered as a framework for Unsupervised Learning in text summarization.

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Date Created
2015