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Analysis of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and its Reauthorizations: The Subsequent Impact on Schools and Students

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This research paper aims to analyze the intricacies of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as well as its reauthorizations, primarily No Child Left Behind (NCLB) with a brief look at the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Most attention

This research paper aims to analyze the intricacies of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as well as its reauthorizations, primarily No Child Left Behind (NCLB) with a brief look at the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Most attention will be placed on Title I of each piece of legislation. Accompanying the analysis will be insight and data examining the varied levels of success for each piece of legislation aimed at minimizing the achievement gap. The data will highlight graduation rates, test scores, dropout rates, adult literacy rates, school enrollment, etc. The research paper will analyze these items on a national scale, then it will direct its attention to Arizona schools. Charter schools will not be analyzed within the scope of this research paper. In exploring these details in terms of a specific state since ESEA's inception, the research paper hopes to better examine the effects of ESEA and perhaps suggest parallels to states nationwide. Since there are so many diverse factors in determining student and school success, it would be unwise to make concrete claims about these figures and whether they prove ESEA was a success or failure. However, the purpose of providing this data is to suggest possible relationships between these federal initiatives and student success. Furthermore, as a prior student and current teacher at a Title I school in Arizona, the author acknowledges that there is potential for bias and the perspective provided in this research paper may differ from that of the reader.

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2018-05

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Seed Beetle Abundance and Diversity in Urban and Rural Sites

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The spread of urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and deterioration and changes the composition of ecosystems for species all over the world. Different groups of organisms are impacted differently, and insects have experienced loss in diversity and abundance due to

The spread of urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and deterioration and changes the composition of ecosystems for species all over the world. Different groups of organisms are impacted differently, and insects have experienced loss in diversity and abundance due to changing environmental factors. Here, I collected seed beetles across 12 urban and rural sites in Phoenix, Arizona, to analyze the effects of urbanization and habitat variation on beetle diversity and abundance. I found that urbanization, host tree origin, and environmental factors such as tree diversity and density had no impact on overall beetle diversity and abundance. Beetles were found to have higher density on hosts with a higher density of pods. In assessing individual beetle species, some beetles exhibited higher density in rural sites with native trees, and some were found more commonly on nonnative tree species. The observed differences in beetle density demonstrate the range of effects urbanization and environmental features can have on insect species. By studying ecosystem interactions alongside changing environments, we can better predict the role urbanization and human development can have on different organisms.

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2018-05

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LGBT Recognition in Arizona: A Honnethian Analysis of Gay Rights in Arizona's Recent History

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Although significant progress has been made in terms of LGBT rights in the United States, the topic has still remained one of the most prevalent and divisive issues in recent history. In Arizona, this prevalence and divisiveness has been illustrated

Although significant progress has been made in terms of LGBT rights in the United States, the topic has still remained one of the most prevalent and divisive issues in recent history. In Arizona, this prevalence and divisiveness has been illustrated through the state's civil rights and legislative history. Additionally, the importance of this issue is highlighted by the incidents of discrimination and bullying towards LGBT students in Arizona's schools. With this in mind, it was critical to conduct an exploratory historical analysis of LGBT rights in Arizona to better understand the recent history and current climate towards the LGBT community in the state. To explore this issue, the data consisted of reports on the fiscal impact of adopting LGBT-friendly policies, reports on LGBT health and well-being, reports on the school climate, court cases, pieces of legislation, opinion polls, news articles, and opinion pieces. This data on LGBT rights in Arizona was then codified, summarized, and analyzed using Axel Honneth's theory of recognition. Through the application of Honneth's theory to the data, it was possible to examine the history of recognition and misrecognition towards the LGBT community in Arizona. In total, there were six identifiable areas that emerged in which recognition and misrecognition exists: LGBT identity and well-being, marriage recognition, LGBT youth, rights and partner benefits, allies of the LGBT community, and opponents of LGBT rights. This project examined those areas through the lens of Arizona's history and provides insights into the current status of LGBT rights in Arizona.

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2016-05

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Do Arizona Charter Schools Rely on Exclusionary Discipline Practices?

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Families of students with disabilities and those who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), are looking for better educational opportunities. Charter schools offer promise as they were designed to promote student learning with limited control from the state. Charter schools

Families of students with disabilities and those who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), are looking for better educational opportunities. Charter schools offer promise as they were designed to promote student learning with limited control from the state. Charter schools though, have been criticized for relying on exclusionary discipline policies that affect CLD students and students with disabilities disproportionately. This study was designed to understand how Arizona charter schools use exclusionary discipline practices, with a focus on students with disabilities and CLD students. Two participants, a fourth grade and fifth grade teacher from a Phoenix metropolis charter school completed surveys and interviews where they answered questions about their classroom and their school’s discipline policies. Teachers were asked how they have adapted and administered classroom discipline policies and to what extent have positive behavioral strategies been implemented in an online setting due to the COVID-19 pandemic when schools transitioned to virtual learning. The results showed that in a virtual setting, teachers retained the practice of removing students from the “classroom”, expectations had to be modified to meet the needs of the new environment, and the school counselor served in conflicting roles. The findings suggested that charter schools and teachers may be transferring and adapting their reliance on exclusionary discipline practices even for an online setting with classrooms that have students with disabilities and those who are CLD.

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2021-05

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Cultural Perceptions of Leisure and Well-being in Rock Climbing Communities of Peru and Arizona, USA

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In December of 2015, I made my way to rural Peru for a few weeks, my first visit to South America. While I was there, I observed a devotion to family and leisure activity, topics that were not heavily prioritized

In December of 2015, I made my way to rural Peru for a few weeks, my first visit to South America. While I was there, I observed a devotion to family and leisure activity, topics that were not heavily prioritized in my experience in Arizona. Upon my return, I became more involved in leisure activities, particularly running, hiking, yoga, and climbing. These involvements noticeably benefitted my health and well-being. The way the Peruvians I met prioritized these subjects fascinated me, and I wanted to study this difference between Arizona and Peru. In July of 2017, I returned to Peru for a semester abroad with my bags packed and the following research questions: 1) Are differences in motivation for rock climbing between Arizona and Peruvian climbers associated with cultural values? 2) Do leisure activities and the amount of time spent on them have an effect on quality of life? 3) Does the degree of climbing specialization impact perceptions of well-being? 4) What characteristics impact perceptions of quality of life among climbers? Are these characteristics affected by country of origin? My prediction was that Peruvians had higher quality of life due to their emphasis on leisure. Through this study, I learned that this conclusion was not as simple as I anticipated.

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2019-05

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Enhancing Student Engagement During Remote Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Remote Teaching Strategies in Morocco and Arizona

Description

As the COVID-19 pandemic globally altered the way education was accessed by students and facilitated by teachers. Educators understand the importance of students engaging in the learning experiences to promote achievement. In this paper, we address the following objectives: (1)

As the COVID-19 pandemic globally altered the way education was accessed by students and facilitated by teachers. Educators understand the importance of students engaging in the learning experiences to promote achievement. In this paper, we address the following objectives: (1) provide a conceptualization of student engagement from the perspective of teachers, students, and families, (2) identify the factors that influence student engagement, (3) identify the distinctions and similarities between in-person and virtual learning, and (4) recommend practices to increase student engagement during virtual learning. Research plans were to collect data in Oujda, Morocco and Arizona, USA to examine educational experiences in two different contexts. In this paper, we present data from the Oujda participants. Results indicated various levels of students’ emotional, behavioral, and cognitive engagement due to factors involving technology, supervision, motivation, and teacher pedagogy. Results reflected various perspectives of teachers, students, and parents regarding student engagement, yet all the perspectives indicated that engagement and preference is higher for in-person learning than virtual learning.

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2021-12