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Use of cleavable fluorescent antibodies for highly multiplexed single cell in situ protein analysis

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The ability to profile proteins allows us to gain a deeper understanding of organization, regulation, and function of different biological systems. Many technologies are currently being used in order to accurately perform the protein profiling. Some of these technologies include

The ability to profile proteins allows us to gain a deeper understanding of organization, regulation, and function of different biological systems. Many technologies are currently being used in order to accurately perform the protein profiling. Some of these technologies include mass spectrometry, microarray based analysis, and fluorescence microscopy. Deeper analysis of these technologies have demonstrated limitations which have taken away from either the efficiency or the accuracy of the results. The objective of this project was to develop a technology in which highly multiplexed single cell in situ protein analysis can be completed in a comprehensive manner without the loss of the protein targets. This was accomplished in the span of 3 steps which is referred to as the immunofluorescence cycle. Antibodies with attached fluorophores with the help of novel azide-based cleavable linker are used to detect protein targets. Fluorescence imaging and data storage procedures are done on the targets and then the fluorophores are cleaved from the antibodies without the loss of the protein targets. Continuous cycles of the immunofluorescence procedure can help create a comprehensive and quantitative profile of the protein. The development of such a technique will not only help us understand biological systems such as solid tumor, brain tissues, and developing embryos. But it will also play a role in real-world applications such as signaling network analysis, molecular diagnosis and cellular targeted therapies.

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2016-12

Highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA and DNA analysis with biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides

Description

The understanding of normal human physiology and disease pathogenesis shows great promise for progress with increasing ability to profile genomic loci and transcripts in single cells in situ. Using biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides, a highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA

The understanding of normal human physiology and disease pathogenesis shows great promise for progress with increasing ability to profile genomic loci and transcripts in single cells in situ. Using biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides, a highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA and DNA analysis is reported. In this report, azide-based cleavable linker connects oligonucleotides to fluorophores to show nucleic acids through in situ hybridization. Post-imaging, the fluorophores are effectively cleaved off in half an hour without loss of RNA or DNA integrity. Through multiple cycles of hybridization, imaging, and cleavage this approach proves to quantify thousands of different RNA species or genomic loci because of single-molecule sensitivity in single cells in situ. Different nucleic acids can be imaged by shown by multi-color staining in each hybridization cycle, and that multiple hybridization cycles can be run on the same specimen. It is shown that in situ analysis of DNA, RNA and protein can be accomplished using both cleavable fluorescent antibodies and oligonucleotides. The highly multiplexed imaging platforms will have the potential for wide applications in both systems biology and biomedical research. Thus, proving to be cost effective and time effective.

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2018-05

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Sensing and regulation from nucleic acid devices

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The highly predictable structural and thermodynamic behavior of deoxynucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) have made them versatile tools for creating artificial nanostructures over broad range. Moreover, DNA and RNA are able to interact with biological ligand as either

The highly predictable structural and thermodynamic behavior of deoxynucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) have made them versatile tools for creating artificial nanostructures over broad range. Moreover, DNA and RNA are able to interact with biological ligand as either synthetic aptamers or natural components, conferring direct biological functions to the nucleic acid devices. The applications of nucleic acids greatly relies on the bio-reactivity and specificity when applied to highly complexed biological systems.

This dissertation aims to 1) develop new strategy to identify high affinity nucleic acid aptamers against biological ligand; and 2) explore highly orthogonal RNA riboregulators in vivo for constructing multi-input gene circuits with NOT logic. With the aid of a DNA nanoscaffold, pairs of hetero-bivalent aptamers for human alpha thrombin were identified with ultra-high binding affinity in femtomolar range with displaying potent biological modulations for the enzyme activity. The newly identified bivalent aptamers enriched the aptamer tool box for future therapeutic applications in hemostasis, and also the strategy can be potentially developed for other target molecules. Secondly, by employing a three-way junction structure in the riboregulator structure through de-novo design, we identified a family of high-performance RNA-sensing translational repressors that down-regulates gene translation in response to cognate RNAs with remarkable dynamic range and orthogonality. Harnessing the 3WJ repressors as modular parts, we integrate them into biological circuits that execute universal NAND and NOR logic with up to four independent RNA inputs in Escherichia coli.

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2019