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A Study of Zeolite Membrane Material Balance and Commercialization Potential

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The United States and most of the world is pushing to significantly reduce carbon emissions, with many countries intent on fostering carbon negative energy processes to offset ozone depletion and climate changes. 30% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are

The United States and most of the world is pushing to significantly reduce carbon emissions, with many countries intent on fostering carbon negative energy processes to offset ozone depletion and climate changes. 30% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are generated from the combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity1. Current commercial IGCC carbon capture processes employ a capital and operating cost intensive water-gas shift reaction facilitated by a high temperature reactor followed by a low temperature reactor and an amine absorber to separate the hydrogen and carbon dioxide streams to capture the carbon. Dr. Jerry Y.S. and his laboratory at Arizona State have developed a hydrogen permselective MFI type ZSM-5 zeolite membrane reactor that effectively facilities the water gas shift reaction with high conversion and separates the CO2 and H2 streams during reaction to generate ultrapure retentate and permeate streams. The membrane, formed by secondary free growth, is synthesized on an ultrapure a-alumina membrane support currently purchased from an outside vendor. The purpose of this study was to design an α-alumina support processing plant with capability to supply one full-scale commercial reactor annually with membranes. The design yielded a DCFRoR of 71% for a 20-year project life. A zeolite membrane processing material balance was conducted using alumina support as the raw material. The study showed very low material costs and consumption rates for all materials except a gas used to refine the membrane after processing. The results of both studies were favorable enough to suggest further study.

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2017-05

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A Stability Study of the MOF-5 Membrane

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Within recent years, metal-organic frameworks, or MOF’s, have gained a lot of attention in the materials research community. These micro-porous materials are constructed of a metal oxide core and organic linkers, and have a wide-variety of applications due to their

Within recent years, metal-organic frameworks, or MOF’s, have gained a lot of attention in the materials research community. These micro-porous materials are constructed of a metal oxide core and organic linkers, and have a wide-variety of applications due to their extensive material characteristic possibilities. The focus of this study is the MOF-5 material, specifically its chemical stability in air. The MOF-5 material has a large pore size of 8 Å, and aperture sizes of 15 and 12 Å. The pore size, pore functionality, and physically stable structure makes MOF-5 a desirable material. MOF-5 holds applications in gas/liquid separation, catalysis, and gas storage. The main problem with the MOF-5 material, however, is its instability in atmospheric air. This inherent instability is due to the water in air binding to the zinc-oxide core, effectively changing the material and its structure. Because of this material weakness, the MOF-5 material is difficult to be utilized in industrial applications. Through the research efforts proposed by this study, the stability of the MOF-5 powder and membrane were studied. MOF-5 powder and a MOF-5 membrane were synthesized and characterized using XRD analysis. In an attempt to improve the stability of MOF-5 in air, methyl groups were added to the organic linker in order to hinder the interaction of water with the Zn4O core. This was done by replacing the terepthalic acid organic linker with 2,5-dimethyl terephthalic acid in the powder and membrane synthesis steps. The methyl-modified MOF-5 powder was found to be stable after several days of exposure to air while the MOF-5 powder exhibited significant crystalline change. The methyl-modified membrane was found to be unstable when synthesized using the same procedure as the MOF-5 membrane.

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2016-05

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Oxygen Ionic-Conducting Ceramics for Gas Separation and Reaction Applications

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Mixed-ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) oxides have drawn much attention from researchers because of their potential in high temperature separation processes. Among many materials available, perovskite type and fluorite type oxides are the most studied for their excellent oxygen ion transport

Mixed-ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) oxides have drawn much attention from researchers because of their potential in high temperature separation processes. Among many materials available, perovskite type and fluorite type oxides are the most studied for their excellent oxygen ion transport property. These oxides not only can be oxygen adsorbent or O2-permeable membranes themselves, but also can be incorporated with molten carbonate to form dual-phase membranes for CO2 separation.

Oxygen sorption/desorption properties of perovskite oxides with and without oxygen vacancy were investigated first by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed experiments. The oxide with unique disorder-order phase transition during desorption exhibited an enhanced oxygen desorption rate during the TGA measurement but not in fixed-bed demonstrations. The difference in oxygen desorption rate is due to much higher oxygen partial pressure surrounding the sorbent during the fixed-bed oxygen desorption process, as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of rapidly quenched samples.

Research on using perovskite oxides as CO2-permeable dual-phase membranes was subsequently conducted. Two CO2-resistant MIEC perovskite ceramics, Pr0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8 O3-δ (PSCF) and SrFe0.9Ta0.1O3-δ (SFT) were chosen as support materials for membrane synthesis. PSCF-molten carbonate (MC) and SFT-MC membranes were prepared for CO2-O2 counter-permeation. The geometric factors for the carbonate phase and ceramic phase were used to calculate the effective carbonate and oxygen ionic conductivity in the carbonate and ceramic phase. When tested in CO2-O2 counter-permeation set-up, CO2 flux showed negligible change, but O2 flux decreased by 10-32% compared with single-component permeation. With CO2 counter-permeation, the total oxygen permeation flux is higher than that without counter-permeation.

A new concept of CO2-permselective membrane reactor for hydrogen production via steam reforming of methane (SRM) was demonstrated. The results of SRM in the membrane reactor confirm that in-situ CO2 removal effectively promotes water-gas shift conversion and thus enhances hydrogen yield. A modeling study was also conducted to assess the performance of the membrane reactor in high-pressure feed/vacuum sweep conditions, which were not carried out due to limitations in current membrane testing set-up. When 5 atm feed pressure and 10-3 atm sweep pressure were applied, the membrane reactor can produce over 99% hydrogen stream in simulation.

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2020

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Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Carbon Capture Applications: Approaches for Adsorptive Separation of CO2/N2 and O2/N2 Mixtures

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The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be

The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be developed. Carbon capture and storage in fossil-fuel power plants is one way to avoid our current gigaton-scale emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, for this to be possible, separation techniques are necessary to remove the nitrogen from air before combustion or from the flue gas after combustion. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous material that show great promise for adsorptive separation processes. Here, potential mechanisms of O2/N2 separation and CO2/N2 separation are explored.

First, a logical categorization of potential adsorptive separation mechanisms in MOFs is outlined by comparing existing data with previously studied materials. Size-selective adsorptive separation is investigated for both gas systems using molecular simulations. A correlation between size-selective equilibrium adsorptive separation capabilities and pore diameter is established in materials with complex pore distributions. A method of generating mobile extra-framework cations which drastically increase adsorptive selectivity toward nitrogen over oxygen via electrostatic interactions is explored through experiments and simulations. Finally, deposition of redox-active ferrocene molecules into systematically generated defects is shown to be an effective method of increasing selectivity towards oxygen.

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2019

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Experimental and Simulation Study on Novel Adsorbents for Carbon Capture, Oxygen Sorption, and Methane Recovery

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Global warming resulted from greenhouse gases emission has received widespread attention. Meanwhile, it is required to explore renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources due to the severe pollution of the environment caused by fossil fuel combustion. In order to realize

Global warming resulted from greenhouse gases emission has received widespread attention. Meanwhile, it is required to explore renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources due to the severe pollution of the environment caused by fossil fuel combustion. In order to realize a substantial adsorption process to resolve the environmental issues, the development of new adsorbents with improved properties has become the most critical issue. This dissertation presents the work of four individual but related studies on systematic characterization and process simulations of novel adsorbents with superior adsorption properties.

A perovskite oxide material, La0.1Sr0.9Co0.9Fe0.1O3-δ (LSCF1991), was investigated first for high-temperature air separation. The oxygen sorption/desorption behavior of LSCF1991 was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed breakthrough experiments. A parametric study was performed to design and optimize the operating parameters of the high-temperature air separation process by pressure swing adsorption (PSA). The results have shown great potential for applying LSCF1991 to the high-temperature air separation due to its excellent separation performance and low energy requirement.

Research on using nanostructured zeolite NaX (NZ) as adsorbents for CO2 capture was subsequently conducted. The CO2/N2 adsorption characterizations indicated that the NZ samples lead to enhanced adsorption properties compared with the commercial zeolites (MZ). From the two-bed six-step PSA simulation, NZ saved around 30% energy over MZ for CO2 capture and recovery while achieving a higher CO2 purity and productivity.

A unique screening method was developed for efficient evaluation of adsorbents for PSA processes. In the case study, 47 novel adsorbents have been screened for coal bed methane (CBM) recovery. The adsorbents went through scoring-based prescreening, PSA simulation, and optimization. The process performance indicators were correlated with the adsorption selectivity and capacities, which provides new insights for predicting the PSA performance.

A new medium-temperature oxygen sorbent, YBaCo4O7+δ (YBC114), was investigated as an oxygen pumping material to facilitate solar thermochemical fuel production. The oxygen uptake and release attributes of YBC114 were studied by both TGA and a small-scale evacuation test. The study proved that the particle size has a significant effect on the oxygen pumping behavior of YBC114, especially for the uptake kinetics.

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2020