Matching Items (4)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

150327-Thumbnail Image.png

Separation of oil and other organics from water using inverse fluidization of hydrophobic aerogels

Description

This dissertation presents a systematic study of the sorption mechanisms of hydrophobic silica aerogel (Cabot Nanogel®) granules for oil and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different phases. The performance of Nanogel for removing oil from laboratory synthetic oil-in-water emulsions and

This dissertation presents a systematic study of the sorption mechanisms of hydrophobic silica aerogel (Cabot Nanogel®) granules for oil and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different phases. The performance of Nanogel for removing oil from laboratory synthetic oil-in-water emulsions and real oily wastewater, and VOCs from their aqueous solution, in both packed bed (PB) and inverse fluidized bed (IFB) modes was also investigated. The sorption mechanisms of VOCs in the vapor, pure liquid, and aqueous solution phases, free oil, emulsified oil, and oil from real wastewater on Nanogel were systematically studied via batch kinetics and equilibrium experiments. The VOC results show that the adsorption of vapor is very slow due to the extremely low thermal conductivity of Nanogel. The faster adsorption rates in the liquid and solution phases are controlled by the mass transport, either by capillary flow or by vapor diffusion/adsorption. The oil results show that Nanogel has a very high capacity for adsorption of pure oils. However, the rate for adsorption of oil from an oil-water emulsion on the Nanogel is 5-10 times slower than that for adsorption of pure oils or organics from their aqueous solutions. For an oil-water emulsion, the oil adsorption capacity decreases with an increasing proportion of the surfactant added. An even lower sorption capacity and a slower sorption rate were observed for a real oily wastewater sample due to the high stability and very small droplet size of the wastewater. The performance of Nanogel granules for removing emulsified oil, oil from real oily wastewater, and toluene at low concentrations in both PB and IFB modes was systematically investigated. The hydrodynamics characteristics of the Nanogel granules in an IFB were studied by measuring the pressure drop and bed expansion with superficial water velocity. The density of the Nanogel granules was calculated from the plateau pressure drop of the IFB. The oil/toluene removal efficiency and the capacity of the Nanogel granules in the PB or IFB were also measured experimentally and predicted by two models based on equilibrium and kinetic batch measurements of the Nanogel granules.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

154169-Thumbnail Image.png

Comparative analysis of adsorptive media treatment for arsenic at SRP groundwater wells

Description

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring element that poses a health risk when continually consumed at levels exceeding the Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ppb. With the Arizona Department of Water Resources considering reliance on

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring element that poses a health risk when continually consumed at levels exceeding the Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ppb. With the Arizona Department of Water Resources considering reliance on other sources of water other than just solely surface water, groundwater proves a reliable, supplemental source. The Salt River Project (SRP) wants to effectively treat their noncompliance groundwater sources to meet EPA compliance. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) of two SRP controlled groundwater wells along the Eastern Canal and Consolidated Canal were designed to assist SRP in selection and future design of full-scale packed bed adsorbent media. Main concerns for column choice is effectiveness, design space at groundwater wells, and simplicity. Two adsorbent media types were tested for effective treatment of As to below the MCL: a synthetic iron oxide, Bayoxide E33, and a strong base anion exchange resin, SBG-1. Both media have high affinity toward As and prove effective at treating As from these groundwater sources. Bayoxide E33 RSSCT performance indicated that As treatment lasted to near 60,000 bed volumes (BV) in both water sources and still showed As adsorption extending past this operation ranging from several months to a year. SBG-1 RSSCT performance indicated As, treatment lasted to 500 BV, with the added benefit of being regenerated. At 5%, 13%, and 25% brine regeneration concentrations, regeneration showed that 5% brine is effective, yet would complicate overall design and footprint. Bayoxide E33 was selected as the best adsorbent media for SRP use in full-scale columns at groundwater wells due to its simplistic design and high efficiency.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

157184-Thumbnail Image.png

Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Carbon Capture Applications: Approaches for Adsorptive Separation of CO2/N2 and O2/N2 Mixtures

Description

The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be

The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be developed. Carbon capture and storage in fossil-fuel power plants is one way to avoid our current gigaton-scale emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, for this to be possible, separation techniques are necessary to remove the nitrogen from air before combustion or from the flue gas after combustion. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous material that show great promise for adsorptive separation processes. Here, potential mechanisms of O2/N2 separation and CO2/N2 separation are explored.

First, a logical categorization of potential adsorptive separation mechanisms in MOFs is outlined by comparing existing data with previously studied materials. Size-selective adsorptive separation is investigated for both gas systems using molecular simulations. A correlation between size-selective equilibrium adsorptive separation capabilities and pore diameter is established in materials with complex pore distributions. A method of generating mobile extra-framework cations which drastically increase adsorptive selectivity toward nitrogen over oxygen via electrostatic interactions is explored through experiments and simulations. Finally, deposition of redox-active ferrocene molecules into systematically generated defects is shown to be an effective method of increasing selectivity towards oxygen.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

158198-Thumbnail Image.png

Adsorption of Perfluoroalkyl Substances from Groundwater Using Pilot and Lab Scale Columns

Description

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals that are detected ubiquitously in the aquatic environment, biota, and humans. Human exposure and adverse health of PFAS through consuming impacted drinking water is getting regulatory attention. Adsorption using

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals that are detected ubiquitously in the aquatic environment, biota, and humans. Human exposure and adverse health of PFAS through consuming impacted drinking water is getting regulatory attention. Adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC) and ion exchange resin (IX) has proved to be efficient in removing PFAS from water. There is a need to study the effectiveness of commercially available sorbents in PFAS removal at the pilot-scale with real PFAS contaminated water, which would aid in efficient full-scale plant design. Additionally, there is also a need to have validated bench-scale testing techniques to aid municipalities and researchers in selecting or comparing adsorbents to remove PFAS. Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests (RSSCTs) are bench-scale testing to assess media performance and operational life to remove trace organics but have not been validated for PFAS. Different design considerations exist for RSSCTs, which rely upon either proportional diffusivity (PD) or constant diffusivity (CD) dimensionless scaling relationships.

This thesis aims to validate the use of RSSCTs to simulate PFAS breakthrough in pilot columns. First, a pilot-scale study using two GACs and an IX was conducted for five months at a wellsite in central Arizona. PFAS adsorption capacity was greatest for a commercial IX, and then two GAC sources exhibited similar performance. Second, RSSCTs scaled using PD or CD relationships, simulated the pilot columns, were designed and performed. For IX and the two types of GAC, the CD–RSSCTs simulated the PFAS breakthrough concentration, shape, and order of C8 to C4 compounds observed pilot columns better than the PD-RSSCTs. Finally, PFAS breakthrough and adsorption capacities for PD- and CD-RSSCTs were performed on multiple groundwaters (GWs) from across Arizona to assess the treatability of PFAS chain length and functional head-group moieties. PFAS breakthrough in GAC and IX was dictated by chain length (C4>C6>C8) and functional group (PFCAs>PFSAs) of the compound. Shorter-chain PFAS broke through earlier than the longer chain, and removal trends were related to the hydrophobicity of PFAS. Overall, single-use IX performed superior to any of the evaluated GACs across a range of water chemistries in Arizona GWs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020