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Investigation of heat-driven polygeneration and adsorption cooling systems

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Just for a moment! Imagine you live in Arizona without air-conditioning systems!

Air-conditioning and refrigeration systems are one of the most crucial systems in anyone’s house and car these days. Energy resources are becoming more scarce and expensive. Most of the

Just for a moment! Imagine you live in Arizona without air-conditioning systems!

Air-conditioning and refrigeration systems are one of the most crucial systems in anyone’s house and car these days. Energy resources are becoming more scarce and expensive. Most of the currently used refrigerants have brought an international concern about global warming. The search for more efficient cooling/refrigeration systems with environmental friendly refrigerants has become more and more important so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure sustainable and affordable energy systems. The most widely used air-conditioning and refrigeration system, based on the vapor compression cycle, is driven by converting electricity into mechanical work which is a high quality type of energy. However, these systems can instead be possibly driven by heat, be made solid-state (i.e., thermoelectric cooling), consist entirely of a gaseous working fluid (i.e., reverse Brayton cycle), etc. This research explores several thermally driven cooling systems in order to understand and further overcome some of the major drawbacks associated with their performance as well as their high capital costs. In the second chapter, we investigate the opportunities for integrating single- and double-stage ammonia-water (NH3–H2O) absorption refrigeration systems with multi-effect distillation (MED) via cascade of rejected heat for large-scale plants. Similarly, in the third chapter, we explore a new polygeneration cooling-power cycle’s performance based on Rankine, reverse Brayton, ejector, and liquid desiccant cycles to produce power, cooling, and possibly fresh water for various configurations. Different configurations are considered from an energy perspective and are compared to stand-alone systems. In the last chapter, a new simple, inexpensive, scalable, environmentally friendly cooling system based on an adsorption heat pump system and evacuated tube solar collector is experimentally and theoretically studied. The system is destined as a small-scale system to harness solar radiation to provide a cooling effect directly in one system.

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Date Created
2018

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Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Carbon Capture Applications: Approaches for Adsorptive Separation of CO2/N2 and O2/N2 Mixtures

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The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be

The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be developed. Carbon capture and storage in fossil-fuel power plants is one way to avoid our current gigaton-scale emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, for this to be possible, separation techniques are necessary to remove the nitrogen from air before combustion or from the flue gas after combustion. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous material that show great promise for adsorptive separation processes. Here, potential mechanisms of O2/N2 separation and CO2/N2 separation are explored.

First, a logical categorization of potential adsorptive separation mechanisms in MOFs is outlined by comparing existing data with previously studied materials. Size-selective adsorptive separation is investigated for both gas systems using molecular simulations. A correlation between size-selective equilibrium adsorptive separation capabilities and pore diameter is established in materials with complex pore distributions. A method of generating mobile extra-framework cations which drastically increase adsorptive selectivity toward nitrogen over oxygen via electrostatic interactions is explored through experiments and simulations. Finally, deposition of redox-active ferrocene molecules into systematically generated defects is shown to be an effective method of increasing selectivity towards oxygen.

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Date Created
2019